Crusades in 8 points
Who were the Crusaders - noble paladins or greedy invaders, could women participate in the campaign and for which Friedrich II threw out
Author Elizabeth Lapina
On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II appealed to the preaching to the Clermont Cathedral in the French city. He called on the listeners to take part in a military expedition and release Jerusalem from "incorrect" - Muslims, in 638 who won the city by the Byzantines. As a remuneration, future crusaders received the opportunity to redeem their sins and increase the chances of entering paradise. The desire of the Pope to lead the bearer case coincided with the desire of his listeners to be saved - the era of crusades began.
1. Basic events of crusades
On July 15, 1099, one of the key events occurred, which will later become known as the first crusade: the Crusaders' troops after a successful siege took Jerusalem and began to exterminate his inhabitants. Most crusaders survived in this battle returned home. Those who remained formed four states in the Middle East - the Edessian County, the Principality of Antioch, Tripoli County and the Jerusalem Kingdom. Subsequently, eight expeditions were sent against Muslim Middle East and North Africa. The next two centuries of the flow of crusaders in the Holy Land was more or less regular. However, many of them in the Middle East were not delayed, and the Crusaders states experienced a constant shortage in defenders.
In 1144, the county of the Edessskoye fell, and the goal of the second crusade was the return of Edessa. But during the expedition plans changed - the Crusaders decided to attack Damascus. The siege of the city failed, the campaign did not end. In 1187, Saladin, Sultan Egypt and Syria, took Jerusalem and many other cities of the Jerusalem Kingdom, including the richest of them - Acrome (modern Akco in Israel). During the expensive cross campaign (1189-1192), which was headed by the King of England Richard Lion's heart, the acre was returned. It remained to return Jerusalem. At that time it was believed that the keys to Jerusalem are in Egypt and therefore began to begin conquest from it. This goal was pursued by the participants of the fourth, fifth and seventh campaigns. During the fourth crusade, Christian Constantinople was conquered, during the sixth returned Jerusalem - but for a while. The trip behind the campaign was unsuccessful, and the desire of Europeans to participate in them weakened. In 1268, Palo Principality of Antioch, in the 1289th Trypoli County, in the 1291st capital of the Jerusalem kingdom of Acre.
2. How hiking changed the relationship to war
Until the first crusade, the maintenance of many wars could be approved by the Church, but none of them was called sacred: even if the war was considered fair, participation in it was harmed to save the soul. So, when in 1066, in the battle of Hastings, Normans was divided by the army of the last Anglo-Saxon King Harold II, the Norman bishops put on them to the Epitality. Now, the participation in the war not only was not considered a sin, but allowed to redeem past pregnursions, and death in battle practically guaranteed the salvation of the soul and provided a place in paradise.
This new attitude towards war demonstrates the history of the monastic order, which arose shortly after the end of the first crusade. First, the main responsibility of the Templars is not just the monks, but the monks-knights were the defense of Christian pilgrims, who went to the Holy Earth, from the robbers. However, very quickly their functions expanded: they began to defend not only pilgrims, but also the very Jerusalem kingdom. Templars passed many castles in the Holy Land; Thanks to the generous daras of supporters of crusades from Western Europe, they have enough money to support them in good condition. Like other monks, the Templars adopted the vows chastity, poverty and obedience, but, unlike members of other monastic orders, served God, killing enemies.
3. How much did it cost in the campaign
For a long time it was believed that the main reason for participation in the crusades was thirst for profit: allegedly so younger brothers, deprived of inheritance, corrected their position at the expense of the fabulous wealth of the East. Modern historians reject this theory.
Historians calculated that the Knight, which gathered in the first crusade, was supposed to collect the amount equal to his income in four years, and the whole family often took part in the collection of these funds. I had to lay, and sometimes even sell my own possessions. For example, Gottfried Boulevard, one of the leaders of the first cross campaign, was forced to lay a generic nest - Bouillon castle.
Most surviving crusaders returned home with empty hands, unless, of course, not count the relics from the Holy Land, which they then gave local churches. However, participation in the crusades strongly raised the prestige of the whole family and even its next generations. The crusader-bachelor who returned home could count on a profitable party, and in some cases it allowed to correct the inclined financial situation.
4. From what the Crusaders died
Calculate how much the crusaders died in the campaigns, it is difficult: the fate of very few participants are known. For example, from the satellites of Conrad III, the King of Germany and the leader of the second crusade, more than a third did not return home. Died not only in battle or subsequently from the received wounds, but also from diseases and hunger. During the first crusade, the lack of provisions was so serious that it came to cannibalism. The kings also accounted for hard. For example, the Emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire Friedrich Barbarossa drowned in the river, Richard Lion's Heart and the King of France Filipp II August was barely experienced a serious illness (apparently, the type of Qingi), from which hair and nails fell out. In another French king, Louis IX saint, during the seventh crusade there was such a strong dysentery that he had to cut the seat of pants. And during the eighth hike, Louis and one of his sons died.
5. Whether in the campaigns of women
Yes, although their number is difficult to calculate. It is known that in 1248 on one of the ships, which during the seventh crusader was carried by the Crusaders in Egypt, 411 men accounted for 42 women. Some women participated in the crusades together with her husbands; Some (usually widows, which in the Middle Ages used relative freedom) rushed by themselves. Like a man, they went hiking to save the soul, pray from the coffin of the Lord, look at the world, to forget about domestic troubles, and also become famous. The poor or impoverished women earned themselves on bread, for example, as bars or misfortunes of lice. In the hope of deserving God's favor, the crusaders tried to observe the chastity: the extramarital ties were punished, and prostitution, apparently, was less common than in the usual medieval army.
In combat actions, women participated very actively. One source mentions a woman who was killed under fire during the siege of acres. She participated in falling asleep RVA: It was done in order to rush to the walls of the siege tower. Dying, she asked to throw her body in the ditch, so that to help the death of the Crusader's departure. Arab sources mention women crusaders who fought in armor and on horseback.
6. What board games are the Crusaders played
Board games, which almost always played money, in the Middle Ages were one of the main entertainment as aristocrats and commoners. Crusaders and settlers of the states of the Crusaders were no exception: they played bones, chess, backgammon and mill (logical game for two players). According to the author of one of the chronicles of Wilhelm Tirsky, King Baldhive III Jerusalem Loved to play the bone more than confirms the royal honor. The same Wilhelm accused Ramunda, Prince of Antioch, and Josna II, Graph Edessa, in the fact that during the siege of the castle Shayzar in 1138 they only did that they played in the bone, leaving their ally, the Byzantine Emperor John II, to fight one, - And in the end, the shyzar failed to take. The consequences of the games could be and much more serious. During the siege of Antioch in 1097-1098, two crusaders, a man and a woman played in the bone. Taking advantage of this, the Turks committed an unexpected frazzle from the city and took both prisoners. The repeated heads of unfortunate players later transferred through the wall to the camp of the Crusaders.
But the games were considered a unaware matter - especially when it was about the Holy War. King of England Henry II, gathering into a crusade (as a result, he did not participate in it), forbade the Crusaders to swear, wear dear clothes, indulge in the bone and play bones (in addition, he forbade women to participate in campaigns, with the exception of the laundle ). His son, Richard Lion's Heart, also believed that games could prevent the successful outcome of the expedition, so I installed strict rules: no one had the right to lose more than 20 shillings per day. True, the kings did not concern, and the commoner had to receive a special permission to play. The rules that limited the games were also members of the monastic orders - Templar and Hospitallers. The Templars could only play the mill and only for pleasure, and not for money. Hospitallers were strictly prohibited to play the bone - "Even for Christmas" (apparently, some used this holiday as an excuse to relax).
7. With whom the Crusaders fought
Already from the very beginning of its military expeditions, the Crusaders attacked not only on Muslims and the battles were not only in the Middle East. The first hike began with the mass beatings of the Jews in the north of France and in Germany: some were just killed, others were offered to choose death or appeal to Christianity (many preferred suicide than death from the hands of the Crusaders). It did not contradict the idea of crusades - most of the crusaders did not understand why they should fight against some of the wrong (Muslims), and others are incorrect to spare. Violence against Jews was accompanied by other crusades. For example, during preparations for the third pogroms, there were several cities in England - only more than 150 Jews died in York.
From the middle of the XII century, Pope began to declare crusades not only against Muslims, but against the pagans, heretics, Orthodox and even Catholics. For example, the so-called albigoic crusades in the south-west of modern France were directed against Qatar - sects that did not recognize the Catholic Church. For Katarov, their neighbors-Catholics were encouraged - they were mainly fought with the Crusaders. So, in 1213, the King of Aragon Pedro II was killed in the battle with the Crusaders, who received a nickname Catholic for successes in the fight against Muslims. And in the "political" crusades in Sicily and the south of Italy, the enemies of the Crusaders from the very beginning were Catholics: Pope accused them that they behave "worse than infidel," because they do not obey his orders.
8. Which hike was the most unusual
The Emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire of Friedrich II gave vow to take part in a cross campaign, but it was not in a hurry. In 1227 he
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CRUSADES, Military Colonial movements of Western European knights , citizens, parts of the peasantry carried out in the form of religious wars under the slogan of the struggle for the liberation of Christian shrines in the Holy Land from the power of Muslims. The initiator and inspirer K. n. Was Roman Catholic. church. Participants of K. p., Who called themselves with the pilgrims, were climbing the sign of the cross, hence their name. - Crusaders.
Prerequisites K. p. A combination of socio-economic was a combination., Demographic., Politicism. and religious factors: the development of cities and commodity-money relations, the growth of the population in Zap. Europe, who accelerate the processes of bundle in society, the widespread dissemination of mystic. sentiment, aggravation of the struggle between the feud. Senoras for land, a sharp change in military. - Strategic. Situations in the Middle East. The main driving force K. p. - Knight. Relig covered. A rush that inspired the participants of the first K.p. and skillfully used by the papacy, the Crusaders were guided and purely practical. goals. Small knighthood sought to acquire in the east estate, get rich. Large senites have sought their own states and possessions. The peasants hoped to gain freedom from feud over the sea. Means and material wealth. Mercury and it means. Mass of the population of Mediterranean cities and mountains. republics - Pisa, Venice, Genoa, Marseille, Barcelona intended to seize profitable positions in trade in the Middle East. Roman Catholic. Church, giving K. p. ideological. Justification of both the sacred wars for the liberation of the Mernel's coffin in Jerusalem from the "wrong" and for the help of Christians in the East, taking the Crusaders to special patronage, desired to strengthen their influence in the West and approve it in conquered lands.
The reason for the beginning of K. p. Served as the conquest of Selzhuki Turks in the 1070-1080s. Syria and Palestine, capture them, after defeating the visant. troops in battle with Mancipert (1071), most of the Asia Minor and the visant. imp. Alexey I Comnotine To a row of Zap.-Europe. sovereigns with a request for help.
"Pope Urban II performs with a preaching of a cross campaign at the church cathedral in Clermon." Miniature from the "History of Life Gottfried Boulevard". 14th century National Library (Paris).
First K.p. (1096-99) .27.11.1095 With the preaching of K. P. At the church cathedral in Clermont, Pope Urban II. promised pilgrims MN. Privileges and absolution of sins. Monks, among whom a special popularity acquired a preacher Peter Amiena (Dressman), widely distributed this idea in the people. In the spring of 1096, "Holy Pilgrimage" began almost unarmed peasant poor in the east. After a long and heavy transition, the demoralized peasant army was exterminated by Senjuks in Saint. 1096 near Nikei. In the summer of 1096, Franz performed in the campaign. and South.-Italian. Knights, sown offs. The detachments led by the Lotaring Duke Gottfried Boulevard and his brother Balduin (Bodouen), Norman KN. Bohamund Tartant, Count Raymond Toulouse (Ramundom de Saint-Gila). Encuting the Union Treaty with the Visant. imp. Alexei I, they crossed into small Asia and caused a number of defeats by Seljuk. 19.6.1097 The capitulated Nikeya (departed to Byzantium), in 1098, Edess were taken and, after a long siege and serious defense from Emir Kerboga approached the troops, - Antioch, who became the capitals of the first states of the Crusaders - the one. County and principality. In 1099 assigned to Jerusalem, with the 1100 capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, in the vassal dependence on which the remaining states of the Crusaders were. His ruler was Gottfried Boulevard, and after his death in 1100 knights elected the first king of his brother Baldwin (Bodoyna), Graph Edessa. In 1101-24, the seizures of Lands of Syria and Palestine crusaders continued. In 1109, Tripoli county was formed.
Second K.p. (1147-49) was taken in response to the capture of Selzhuki Edessa in 1144. He was headed by Franz. King Louis VII and Germ. king Conrad III; Ended by defeating it. Crusaders and the failure of the French, unsuccessfully trying to take Damascus.
"The Martial Arts of Richard Lion Heart and Salah Ad-Dina." Miniature from Psaltiri Sir Jeffrey Latrell. 1340. British library (London).
Third K.p. (1189-92) was caused by the full defeat of the Jerusalem kingdom and the seizure of his capital Egypt. Sultan Salah hell-din In 1187. The leaders of the campaign - the emperor of the Sacred Rome. Empire Frederick I Barbarossa , Franz. king Philip II August and eng. king Richard Lion Heart having enamel each other. Taking the iconium (now Konya), Friedrich I died at 1190 in Kilicia when crossing through the mountain river, his army broke up. The British and French in 1191 took the port of Accra, after which Philip II was departed to his homeland. Richard The Lion Heart in 1191 won the Cyprus who had fallen earlier from Byzantium, which would then alone. Kingdom (1192-1489), and in 1192 he signed the world with Salah, under the conditions of which the coast of Tira to Jaffa remained for the Jerusalem kingdom. Jerusalem failed to win.
Fourth K.p. (1202-04) planned dad Innocent III against Egypt. Its participants were Venice, Franz., Him. and flags. Knights, and the leader of the marquis monfract of Bonifami. Arriving in Venice, Zap.-Europe. Knights could not pay the venetians money for the equipment of the fleet, provided for by the initial contract. For the sake of deferred debt leaders, the campaign agreed to the capture along the path of the city of Zadar, the possession of which Venice claimed, but in those years he belonged to Weng. king. In 1202, the Zadar was taken by the crusaders and transferred to Venice.
"Taking Constantinople". Outdoor mosaic in the Church of San Giovanni Evanzhelista in Ravenna.
Agreeing at the request for assistance in restoring the wiser on the throne. Tsarevich Alexey IV Angel whose father is Isaac II Angel It was lowled and blinded in 1195, in exchange for the promise of 200,000 stamps with silver and participation in the hike in the holy land, Monferrat's Bonifaces, with the assistance of the Venice's Dad, Enrico Dandolo sent a campaign to Constantinople. Looking around in Galate, in July 1203 Crusaders broke into the originated Constantinople and restored Isaac II and his son Alexey IV on the throne. The latter could not fulfill the terms of the contract and lost power as a result of a coup Alexey V Duki . The crusaders decided to master Byzantia and divide it among themselves. 12.4.1204 Constantinople is taken by storm and subjected to robbery. Many of his monuments were destroyed, the churches were desecrated, treasures and relics were exported to the West. Crusaders failed to conquer the whole territory of Byzantium. They were formed Latin Empire With the center in Constantinople (1204-61), the emperor was elected FLAND CRF Boduen (Baldoon I), the Dessalonik Kingdom (1204-24), headed by Bonifacim Monferrat, the Maisian KN-V at Peloponnese (1205-1432), Athenian Duchy (1205-1456) and others. A number of quarters in Constantinople, MN. The territory in the Aegean m., including the cities of Crown and Modon, Islands of Evie and Crete, went to the Venetians. Greek. The church on the conquered lands was delivered under the control of the papacy, Patriarch Konstantinople was elected Catholic. Prelate Venetian Tommaso freezing. The 4th K. p., Directed against Christians, marked the deep crisis of the crusader movement, led to the deepening of the split churches, intensifying the rejection of Greek. Clear and population.
Fifth Kc. (1217-21) against Egypt, in whose organizations were participating in Weng. King Endre II, Austra. Duke Leopold VI, King of Cyprus Hugho I Lusignan and rulers of the states of the Crusaders ended to no avail. Crusaders could not be held taken by the city of Lamyette and, surrounded by the army of Aiubid, they were to capitulate.
During the sixth K.p. (1228-29), headed by his emperor of the Sacred Rome. Empire Friedrich II. Paufen. He managed by peace negotiations briefly return to Jerusalem (1229-44).
Seventh K.p. (1248-54) against Egypt and Eighth Kc. (1270) against Tunisia, prepared by Franz. king Louis IX Saints , ended with the defeat of the armies of the Crusaders. In 1291, the latest possessions of the Crusaders in Syria and Palestine were conquered by Sultan Egypt.
Attempts to organize K. P. East were taken in 14-15 centuries. It is t. N. Late K. p., Ch. The way against Omman Turks. The army of the Crusaders led by the Weng. By the King of Zhigmond I Luxembourg (Sigismund I) was defeated by Ottomans in Nikopol Battle (1396). Army led by the king of Poland and Hungary Vladislav III and Transylvanian governor Huntadi After a series of success, Ottomans were exterminated in Battle at Varna (1444).
In the course of K. p. Spiritual-knightly orders were formed: in the beginning. 12 V. - John (Hospitallers), approx. 1118 - Templora (Teastovnikov), in 1198 - Teutonic Order Virgin Mary (moved to the Baltic States in the beginning. 13th century). K. p. Only for a short time they reached their own direct goal - liberation from the power of the Muslims of the Holy Sepulcher (Holy Land). They led to large human and material losses, to establishing in Syria, Palestine, former. Byzantium - Latin Romania - more severe than before, senorial regime. K. p. Strengthened migration processes, facilitated the formation of commercial factories of Zap.-Europe. Cities in the Middle East and the growth of trade between Europe and Levant. As a result, K. p., Thanks to the outflow to the east of the most "rebellious" element, the centralization of a number of states of Zap has strengthened. Europe. Hiking contributed to the progress of military. Cases in Europe, stimulated the construction of military and transport ships, including high-speed and significantly larger displacement, the introduction of new types of weapons.
In the form of K. p. Carried out Reconquista on the pyrenees Conquest and colonization of Slavic lands 12-13 centuries ., Albigoian wars in France in 1209-1229, fighting Gusitsky movement In the Czech Republic at 15 V. and etc.
Religious wars, alas often had a place in history, when supporters of one religion with enthusiasm and zeal killed those who do not share their faith, while doing this and being in the conviction that the "good deed" is creating. Crusades are the most striking example of religious wars in the past. Just like Muslim terrorists fanatics believe that killing the wrongty, they will fall into the paradise, where beautiful virgins are expected, and the crusaders were in a firm conviction that their participation in the crusade is a guarantee of entering paradise and at the same time will become indulgence From all sins, past and future. After all, the Pope itself promised! What was the essence of crusades, what kind of causes, what were the main crusades, and what value did they have for history? All this is our article.
Causes of crusades
Europe in the X-20th century was in a deep crisis, "the century was so-so, medium." Indeed, in the middle of the Middle Ages, life was far from sugar, and not only in commoner, but also from native families. After all, in every family, that poor, that rich and noble was always born in many children (about the planning of the family and contraception, then did not know in the riser). And according to the then laws in the avoidance of family disassembly between the brothers, the eldest son inherited all the property of their parents. For younger sons there were only two ways, or to go to the monastery and continue to move along a religious and church line, or to take a father's horse, armor and weapons, and become a wandering knight.
Such stray knights were often united in real gangs, the robes of unlucky merchants, laying the paristers of the village, or went to the service to this or that feudal. The benefit of medieval feudal feudal fought with each other and the help of the poor, but noble knights was as impossible.
But by the end of the twentieth century, the economic crisis has also broke out in Europe: a few in a row of walking crisps, as a result of feudalists, there has become nothing to pay for the noble knights for their service. Yes, and the wandering knight-gangsters became more and more. Smart people became clear that their warlike energy should be sent somewhere, and it is desirable that this "somewhere" was away from their own home. And where, soon there was ...
... The Holy City of Jerusalem is sacred and for Jews, and for Muslims, and of course for Christians. Conquered by the Arabs in 687, he, nevertheless, remained open to Christian pilgrims (Christians and Jews respected the first Muslims, considering their books, who believe in one of the same God). Everything has changed when Turks-Seljuki came to power, not distinguished by religiousness. In 1071, they interrupted pilgrimage paths, and covered with "incorrect" Christian pilgrims to access the Holy City of Jerusalem. Only this news itself caused great indignation and indignation in Europe.
And a little later, in 1095, the Byzantine Emperor sent a letter to Pope with a request to help with the Seljuk Turks, which the boundaries of Byzantium and in general "Christian people are offended."
And here in the same 1095, Pope Urban II pronounces his famous fiery speech about how "damned Saracines" holy land and oppress Christians, and that it is time for the entire noble Christian christmas to collect and free the holy land from "hated busurman" and at the same time to help Byzantine, let them and Orthodox (then mean heretics) But all one Christians.
What to say, the Pope's speech threw stormy ovations, and all the Knights present on it immediately swore to win the holy land and the red crosses were crucified on their clothes. So the movement of the crusaders originated.
Let's summarize what caused the reason for the reason for the emergence of such an unusual historical phenomenon as "crusades". As you see, there are several reasons:
- Genuine desire to free the holy city of Jerusalem, to make it accessible to Christians and at the same time spreading the influence of the Catholic Church to the East.
- Disappearance in Europe itself, the need to direct the energy of warlike, but poor knights for some noble cause. "The liberation of the Holy Land from Saracin", what could be noble?
Start of crusades
Pope promised to all the participants of the crusade exemption from all sins, past and future, "guaranteed place in paradise." Therefore, it is not surprising that soon the broad masses of people, and both noble knights, and just poor peasants joined the rows of Crusaders. After all, the influence of religion in the consciousness of people at the time was very strong and all these people really believed that after death would certainly fall into paradise.
But the indulgence of liberation from all sins also had the opposite direction, so on the way to the holy land "the military of Christ" did not be rushed with robbers and we wake up, passing the robusts of local villages (which is shy, because all the sins will be forgiven, it means you can sneak well). Especially went to the Jews, which as "non-Christ" became the first victims of militant crusaders. So, without starting, in fact, to fight with Muslims the Crusaders carried out a number of Jewish pogroms in many European cities lying on their routes.
On the way to Constantinople, the Crusaders entered the conflict with the locals, in some places, these conflicts turned into small local wars. For example, in the Czech Republic and Hungary, local residents provided the Crusaders a decisive response, so, finally, reaching Constantinople "The Milit of Christ" turned out to be quite thin in the skirmis with the same Christians, simply not wanting to be robbed by these "militant pilgrims".
It is worth noting that the first spontaneous wave of the Crusaders who responded to Pope's call was presented mainly by poor peasants who became crusaders from hopelessness and the same poor knights. When all this Vataga arrived to Constantinople, the Byzantine emperor was not particularly delighted. After the leaders of the Crusaders swore at the loyalty to the emperor, the first crusaders were crushed through the Bosphorus, and soon most of them died in skirmishes with Seljuky Turks. So the "zero crusade" ended, the first spontaneous performance of people called the Crusaders ended.
An organized knighthood under the leadership of the most valiant and famous knights of that time was released at the elemental crowd of the first crusaders, and famous knights of the time: Gottfried Boulevard, Duke Lotaring, and his brothers. Among the participants of the first crusade was the Count Gogo Vermandoua (the younger brother of the French king) and the Duke Robert Normansky (the younger brother of the English king) and many other very noble knights whose names later will not be mentioned in numerous knightly novels. All these people became at the head of the first crusade.
Unlike the poor peasants who became the crusaders for the sake of "warm places in Paradise", this man was perfectly armed, organized, loved and skillfully fight. So, having reached by Constantinople and triggered through the Bosphorus, in the first battle of Crusaders, the heads defeated the Seljuk Turks, and then besieged antioch. Her siege lasted the whole year and was full of difficulties and deprivation, nevertheless, the Crusaders took this city, and then defeated the Muslim Army, which came to the rescue of the precipitated antioch. After this victory, the path to the cherished Jerusalem was opened.
And now, on June 15, 1099, the fact that the Crusaders were so wanted - Jerusalem, who was in the hands of the Egyptian Sultan, was besieged and captured by the "History of Christ".
Taking Jerusalem Crusaders, medieval miniature.
Capturing Jerusalem, the Crusaders staged a terrible massacre in the city, killing not only Muslims, but also of the Turkish Jews and even local Christians, in general, without disaster (after all, and so all sins are forgiven). Alas, such sad consequences can lead blind religious fanaticism.
The first crusade reached its main goal - dismantled for Christians with the Holy Earth and, closing a little in advance, it was he who was the most successful among all the crusades. Such brilliant success of the Crusaders to some extent contributed to the dissolution of Muslims divided into two large camps: Sunnis from Mosul and Shiites from Egypt. Sunnis and Shiites of each other, to put it mildly, did not love, so they did not agree on joint actions against the Crusaders and made it possible to capture Jerusalem as a result. Such are briefly the events of the first crusade.
At the conquered territories, the Crusaders were created by the Jerusalem kingdom, and Gottfried Boulevard was proclaimed the first Jerusalem king. And the crusaders managed to quarrel with their Byzantine allies, who were promised part of the land allied from Muslims. But the crusaders violated the promise and left these lands to themselves. The quarrel with the Byzantines they subsequently aumed.
The position of the young Jerusalem kingdom was from the very beginning very sharply, which is not surprising for the state surrounded by completely unfriendly neighbors, and not only Muslims, because soon the Byzantine emperor entered into an alliance with Seljuk Turks. And the latter did not sit back, and in 1144 he captured Edessa - one of the key cities of the Crusaders in the region.
For her restoration, a second crusade was organized, whose participants were mainly French knights, which is not surprising because the main bones of the Crusaders of the Jerusalem kingdom also amounted to the French. The campaign was headed by the French king by Louis VII and the German emperors by Conrad III Gogenstaofen. However, the Crusaders were thoroughly kept on the way to the Jerusalem kingdom, due to the marriage of food, and diseases in the troops. Having reached, finally, before the goal, they suffered a number of military defeats from Arabs, after which both leaders refused their intentions to win the Edess and returned to their possessions. The second crusade ended with a complete failure.
Saladine shall cause a back
In 1173, Emir of Egypt became very talented and energetic ruler - Sultan Salah Ad-Dean, whom the crusaders called just Salladin. Salladin turned out to be a truly brilliant commander, wise ruler and diplomat, and his activity became a genuine curse for the Crusaders.
The Jerusalem kingdom ruled at the time of the King of Baldoon IV, although it was also a very wise ruler and a commander, nevertheless, turned out to be sick with a leprosy and soon died of this disease, and the husband of Sisters Baldwini became the next king - Guido de Lusignan, the man is rich, so And shattered. And when his vassal, the French Baron Renault de Shatilon made a raid on the Arab caravan, Guido supported him than Salladin gave a full-scale war against the Jerusalem kingdom.
The army of the Crusaders, who spoke against Salladin, suffered a crushing defeat in the battle of Hattin, Gvido himself, together with the refinery Renault de Shatilon, were captured by Salladin, the latter soon "rooted on his head."
Captured Crusaders in Salladin Camp.
After this defeat, Jerusalem was besieged by the Malladin's army, a small garrison, a small garrison could not hold back the siege and soon capitulated. The Jerusalem kingdom was destroyed, and the Holy City of Jerusalem was again in the hands of Muslims.
By the way, the events described here are perfectly shown in the most interesting historical film "Kingdom of Heaven." Let there be some historical inaccuracies (the film is still artistic, and not documentary), we highly recommend it to everyone, and will imbued with the spirit of those times (to watch it is necessary for a complete director's version, it is about an hour longer than the circumcision version that was shown in cinemas).
The news of the fall of Jerusalem revealed all Christian Europe into deep despondency, and the most active European kings began to gather in the third crusade.
The main goal of the third crusade was re-taking the Holy Land. And he headed his chief "Sorvigolov" of medieval Europe, fearless and brave king of England - Richard "Lion Heart". King Richard was a very peculiar person in history, the ruler he was not so good, his subjects laid huge charges, to the right and left public posts, and according to his own words, "even London would sell, just found a buyer," all In order to collect money for your military campaigns. But what Richard really loved and knew how to fight. So in the youthful years, he completely successfully fought with his own father (!) - King Heinrich II, and the king of France Filipp II. When the news came to him about the fall of Jerusalem - the desire to go to a new crusade was the idea of Fix Richard.
Interestingly, in the third crusade he acted together with his recent opponent, the King of France Philipp II, subsequently between the English and French crusaders and their kings, conflicts have repeatedly arise throughout this very hike.
The German Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa joined the third to the cross campaign, which with his troops moved on land, while the British and French went by the sea.
The third crusade from the very beginning, what is called "not set". So shifting through the small river Selif in Malaya Asia, Friedrich Barbarossa, being in heavy knightly armor fell from a horse in the water and drowned in this small river. Left without his leader, most of the German crusaders, simply turned home.
It was no better about their English and French "colleagues", coming to the territory, where the Jerusalem kingdom was recently recently, instead of going and release Jerusalem, the Crusaders were asked by the Acrome fortress, which were in the rear. The acre unexpectedly turned out to be a very "difficult ornament", her siege lasted as much as two years. Salladin's troops in turn surrounded the troops of the Crusaders precipitated acre.
During the siege, the leaders of the Crusaders, the Kings Richard and Phillip finally dissected each other, after which the French king, with his subjects, waved his hand on all this business and sailed back to France, leaving Richard alone with Salladin. Soon, the military luck smiled at the English king, the Crusaders did not manage to take an acre, and then defeat the troops of Salladin in the battle of Arzuf. Soon Richard Lion's heart, finally, was able to get closer to the coveted Jerusalem, but then he came from Europe from Europe - returning to France, the King of Philip decided to take advantage of the lack of the English king, and almost all of the ownership of England on the mainland took the scum. Such treachery was outraged by Richard, and the desire to continue to fight with Muslims from him as a decline. Moreover, the king Richard is a lion's heart, in the end, even made friends with Salladin, probably in his face the Muslim leader saw a worthy opponent.
In a word, the third crusade ended with peace negotiations between Richard and Salladin, the English king managed to overtake the right to visit the Christian pilgrims of Jerusalem (the city itself remained in the hands of Muslims). Also behind the Crusaders, the acre and part of the coastal strip from Tira to Jaffa remained behind the crusaders.
This crusade is the strangest, initially his goal, as other campaigns had a war with Muslims, was assumed to attack Egypt, but by coincidence, the main goal was ... Byzantine Empire. Shortly before the start of the campaign, the Byzantine Emperor Isaac Angel was overthrown with his brother during the palace coup. The son of the overthrown emperor addressed the Crusaders asking you to help restore the legitimate ruler. This was the reason for the fact that instead of Egypt, the Crusaders invaded the Byzantium, they broke her troops, and instead they founded the Latin empire that existed for 57 years.
The fifth, the sixth, seventh and eighth crusaders were unsuccessful attempts by European sovereigns to chance at least something from "Buceman", but they all ended in failure. The exception is only the sixth crusade (1228-1229), at the head of which was a smart diplomat, the German Emperor Friedrich II Gogenstaofen. He succeeded (taking advantage of the parties in the Muslim camp between Shiites and Sunnites) to agree with the Egyptian Sultan Al-Kamil about the peaceful return of Christians of Jerusalem and the parts of the land of the once taken by Salladin.
But after 15 years after the end of the sixth crusade, due to the violation of the Christian Pilgrims of the Peace Treaty, Jerusalem was again deposited and was again lost, this time already forever.
The last eighth crusade, undertaken by the French king Louis IX Saints in 1270 ended with a complete failure, the death of the King himself and many of his subjects participating in this campaign. After this defeat, the European knighthood was completely disappointed in the crusades.
In addition to canonical crusades, there were many other religious wars, which were also sometimes called cross campaigns. Among them, it is possible to distinguish the struggle against heretics in Europe itself, so there was an albigo crusade against the Yeretikov-Qatar in France, the Gusitsky crusade against the gusites in the Czech Republic, unsuccessful cross hiking against the umanic empire and many others.
Consequences of crusades
Although the era of crusades brought a lot of disasters, she had a certain benefit. So, being in the Middle East and enhancing close contact with the Arabs, the Europeans brought a lot of interesting things to Europe, such as the secretion of paper manufacturing. And this in turn positively influenced the development of a book business and led to the reduction of books. In addition to the paper, they met with many other achievements of the ancient culture of the East in the field of medicine, geography, mathematics, alchemy, having prepared the soil to start the European Renaissance Epoch.
European knights during crusades learned discipline and even organized in real knightly orders with their strict charter, code of conduct, rules. The most famous among them were hospitallers and Templars. The latter became very influential, but perhaps they should devote a separate article.
Knights-Templars, historical reconstruction.
Interesting facts about crusades
- What are the attitude of the cross hiking to our ancestors? The most direct, so one of the leaders of the first cross campaign, the very graph of Gogo Vermandua, the younger brother of the French king, was the son of Anna Yaroslavovna, the daughter of Kiev Prince Yaroslav Wise, who was married to the French king.
- Of the variety of crusades, the crusade of children organized in 1212 was the most unusual and senseless. The Children's Cross Hike began with the fact that a certain French shepherd Stefan was a vision in which Jesus Christ himself called him to lead a new crusade from the children alone, who were destined to free the holy earth without weapons, the strength of the prayer alone. As a result, Stephen could call about 30 tees with his sermons. Children of poor peasants in France and Germany will join this cross campaign. That's just about the means of transporting children-crusaders by the sea, nobody took care of the holy land. As a result, several merchants agreed to transport them to their ships, but instead they sold children to slavery.
- Most of the Crusaders died not from the Muslim boom or saber, but it was banally from hunger and diseases, especially from dysentery - Christian warriors did not differ in cleanness, and picked up an intestinal infection in the campaign was easier than simple.
- And more about cleanliness and crusaders. So adopted today, the custom of washing hands in front of the eartle of the Crusaders took over the Arabs and then brought it to Europe.
Author: Pavel Chaika, editor-in-chief of the historical site travel in time
When writing the article tried to make it the most interesting, useful and high-quality. I would be grateful for any feedback and constructive criticism in the form of comments on the article. Also your wish / question / offer can write to my mail [email protected] or in Facebook, with respect, author.
The time of crusades was not easy. In this article we will look at the horrors of crusades; We will tell you how they passed and what could wait for you if you were a crusader.
The idea of crusades
In 1095, the Roman Pope Urban II convened the Council of Clermon in France to strengthen its power and solve the Muslim head problem to the neighboring Byzantine Empire. The idea of crusades originated on this council.
In the hope of killing two hares, Urban II called for the Holy War against Muslims. He wanted to win the Holy Land, whose pearl was Jerusalem.
Pope Urban II provoked the first of eight crosses. They took place between 1096 and 1291 and changed the geopolitical landscape of the world for many centuries.
12. Hunger and cannibalism
Suppose you signed up in the first crusade in 1096. Dad promised if you die in battle, then all your sins will be forgiven, and you will fall into heaven.
If you are a knight, it is very convenient, because in your free from the sacred war, you also fought in conventional wars, which were considered "sinful".
If you are a peasant, the crusade is also a good option. After all, at that time, hunger ruined France, carrying out the lives of thousands of people.
The first crusaders were actually unfinished hordes of French and German peasants. And the Turkish troops easily destroyed them.
With the second crusade, the crusaders also fought hunger. In the chronicles, it is stated that "35,000 people who rescue from hunger and poverty joined 4500 knights. Many "marched barefoot" and without weapons.
To get to Jerusalem, you would need a lot of time, and if you were not died on the road, you would live on a spicy diet from the roots of plants and the roast flesh of your enemies.
Numerous witness of eyewitnesses of the siege of Maearry describe the Crusaders, as "aggressive cannibals" who have eaten their enemies.
Summer on the Holy Land is usually increasing. Crusaders suffered greatly from the exhausting heat.
According to "Crusading: War for the Holy Land", dehydration killed the "whole 500" crusaders in the summer of 1097. In addition, Muslims perfectly used the heat to help.
Perhaps the most famous example occurred in 1187, when Sultan Saladin won the King Guy in the battle of Khattin. Saladine lured the army of Guy from the water source. When the Crusaders began to dry out in the sun, Saladin's troops set fire to the grass, and at the most hot moment of the day, hail from arrows from the arrows. Dehydrated crusaders could not effectively resist.
Next, Saladin captured Jerusalem.
10. Sidelines in winter
The suffocating heat and the desert climate turned the holy land in the summer of hell for the Crusaders. However, winter was no better.
Thomas Hartwell Horn wrote that "Crusaders at the end of the 12th century faced with Palestinian winter in all her horrors." Men and women died from cold, incessant rains, strong winds and deadly hail.
Because of the mountainous terrain, water flows were washed off people and animals.
When, during the third Crusade, the Richard Army, the lion's heart went to Askalon (located south-west of Jerusalem), they had to face rains and floods.
Their onslaught destroyed food solders, the crusaders were drowning in wet ground. Chronicler Jeffrey Visaouf wrote that "even the most brave people shed tears like rain."
If you managed not to die before the first fight and survive in it, then the doctor who will be entrusted to pate your wounds, may well kill you.
In the end, crusades occurred in the Middle Ages, when medicine was not at all developed. It was a time when infant mortality was very high, the mother was constantly dying during childbirth, and the doctors were treated with dementia, caring the cross on his forehead.
In the chronicles mentioned the case when the doctor in the camp of the Crusaders amputated the fighter foot due to the "small infected wound". As a result, the patient died.
Doctors were not easy. There is a known case, like a crusader nobleman and almost the king of Jerusalem Conrad from the monferrata forbade doctors to make potions after the fear of poisoning. All doctors who tried to prepare medicines, executed.
The word "ration" often causes images of marine pirates. But vitamin C deficiency may also affect land inhabitants.
You might think that it is easy to fix oranges and lime. But remember how medieval people eat during the crusades.
So how destructive was the ration? She destroyed one sixth French army during the fifth crusade. A description of this campaign draws a terrifying picture.
In 1218, the Crusaders, the precipitated the Egyptian port of Damietta, were "covered by strong pains in the feet and the ankles, their gums were swollen, the teeth became friable and useless, hips and leg bones were black and rotten." The death of death was more like mercy than the punishment.
The qing was raging and during the seventh crusade, destroying the troops of Louis IX. Dentists of those times cut off "large pieces of flesh" from swollen gums of men.
As for Louis IX itself (which was later recognized by the Holy), despite the version that he died from dysentery, it is quite possible that it was the qing that killed him.
The history of crusades is rich in all sorts of diseases. If you are a crusader, then your bladder could cry with bitter tears, or your back can cause a leakage associated with fear.
But these are still half. There is a high probability that any leakage of anything from your body during crusades could be the result of intestinal disease.
Priests, beggars, knights, merchants and criminals were a buffet for parasites and diseases.
One of the main diseases was dysentery. This disease claimed the lives of countless soldiers. Crusaders are most often infected with dysentery through drinking water.
If you are confused without pants in your own liquid mud, do not worry, there were many other diseases. For example, tuberculosis or different types of fever, which, according to the chroniclers, filled the rivers of the corpses of Christian and Muslim warriors. "
The first crusade ended in 40 years. But before the second began, as described in the novel of Thomas Kateley "Crusaders", Raymond from Poitiers, Prince of Antioch, broke the truce and besieged the city of Aleppo.
Lack of water and supplies ultimately forced him to abandon their efforts. But where Raymond failed, in October 1138, the fierce earthquake turned Aleppo in the ruins. The earthquake was equal to the city with land, 230,000 people died in total.
This leads us to the threat of which you did not think: earthquakes.
The earthquake of 1138 was not the only one. There are evidence of 13 or 14 earthquakes during the 200-year existence of Frankish states, which were located along the system of faults of the Dead Sea.
5. Brutal laws
In the medieval times of crime rigidly caught. Fakes were cooked in oil, the adulterers were scored by stones, and Zhulikov could be cooked on the grill, to tempt or behead.
The defense of the accused in principle did not exist, and the use of cruel torture for coercion to recognize was encouraged. Unfortunately, crusades aggravated this madness.
Christians began to bind homosexuality with Islam and mercilessly burned all suspects on the bony.
Crusades also contributed to hostility towards Jews, Investments, lepers and poor. In 1275, the King of England Edward I established the Jewish Charter, which was driving the Jews in poverty.
4. Sounds of the Church
Depending on which stage of crusades you lived, the deviation from the teachings of the Catholic Church could lead to your death.
In the 12th century, the goals that pursued the Crusaders were significantly expanded. Instead of focusing exclusively on the Holy Land, they also aimed at the lost souls in Europe.
Christians who did not adhere to the Roman Catholic Church were considered "cancer danger." They were even considered more dangerous than distant Muslims, because they harmed the body of Christ from the inside.
In France, tensions due to religious disagreements resulted in Albigois crusade, in which the Catholic Church declared War Catars.
Catar had unorthodox convictions, claiming that Jesus was just an angel, and his death was illusory. The crusaders destroyed them with thousands, burning on the huge bony.
Albigoian crusade laid the beginning of the Spanish Inquisition.
3. Pursuit of Jews
If you were a Jew during the times of crusades, many Christian warriors would consider you the same enemy as Muslims.
Christians considered the Jews as the "Killers of Christ", and some considered crusades as the possibility of cruel revenge by them. This is especially true for the first and third crusades.
In 1096, the group of peasants, headed by the monk by Peter Deustcher, made that some are called "First Holocaust." Eight hundred Jews were killed in Worms, more than 1000 - in Mainz. The Jewish communities of Cologne and Speyer were also attacked.
2. Inglorious death
If you still want to live in times of crusades, maybe you become a legendary king or first-class mercenary?
The era of crusades is the time of the Great Kings (Richard I, Baldwin), Sultan Saladin, Templars and Assassins.
Baldwin's king was sick and died to 25 years.
Richard Lion's Heart during the Third Crusade, was the most dangerous of the Saladin itself. He died in battle with his former crusader colleague, King Philip II. In the siege, one of the fortresses Richard caught the arbalt bolt in his hand and died of infection.
Saladine, respectable Sultan, the brilliant military officer and the conqueror of Jerusalem probably died of abdominal typhus.
The assassins changed the story during the crusades, killing Conrad of the Monferrat before he became King Jerusalem. But they were destroyed by Mongols in the 1250s.
What about the Templars? They were reasonable and fierce fighters, but in 1291 they lost the favor of King Philip IV, which owes money to them. Filipp massively destroyed the Templars and burned a lot of them on fires for fictional crimes.
1. meaningless massacre
War is always hell, even when Dad himself stands for her.
Raymond D'Augiller described the bloodthirsty bloodshed, which followed, when Jerusalem got into the hands of Christian troops in 1099: "Some of our people (and it was more mercifully) cut off their heads with their enemies ... The others tormented them longer, throwing them into the flame. Piles of heads, hands and feet lit up the streets that were in the ankle in the blood. Jews who defended the city along with their Muslim neighbors were locked in the synagogue and set fire. Women, children and older people were not mercy. "
If you were in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople during the fourth crusade, there was a high likelihood that you would be brutally killed not Muslims, but the crusaders themselves, whom you were once called allies.
According to the ancient history encyclopedia, deep distrust and religious tensions between the sacred Roman and the Byzantine empires led to the fact that the Crusaders plundered Constantinople. The bloodshed was so strong that the "bloody rivers" allegedly "flowed through the streets of the city for several days."
With such sacred wars, you do not need a real hell to get a punishment for sins. You would have already lived in hell - this was the world of crusades.
Looking like a topic ... Knight's orders Knight's Order (orders) played an important role in the formation of the statehood of modern European countries, like: France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Note
Crusades - a series of religious military campaigns in the XI-XV centuries. from Western Europe.
Crusades are the reaction of Christianity against the power of Islam (during caliphs) and a grand attempt not only to take possession of once Christian areas, but also to widely spread the limits of the cross of the Cross, this symbol of the Christian idea.
Participants of these campaigns, Crusaders, wore a red image of a cross with a spokespring of St. Scripture on the right shoulder (onions 14, 27), due to which hiking got the name of the crusades.
Causes of crusades
The causes of the crusades were in the Western European political and economic conditions of that time: the struggle of feudalism with the increasing power of the kings put forward on one side of the seekers of the independent possessions of the feudalists, about the other - the desire of kings to save the country from this restless element; The townspeople saw in motion in the distant country the possibility of expanding the market, as well as the acquisition of benefits from their lines, the peasants were in a hurry to break free from the serfdom in the cross campaigns; Pope In general, the clergy was found in the leadership role, which they had to play in religious movement, the possibility of their power-loving designs.
Finally, in France, ruined in the 48th hungry years in a short period of time from 970 to 1040, accompanied by marine ulcer, to the above reasons, the hope of the population was joined in Palestine, this country, still on the Old Testament of the current Malk and Honey, the best economic conditions .
Another cause of crusades was the change of position in the East.
Since the time of Konstantin the Great, erected by the Holy Coffin, the magnificent church, in the West, entered the custom to travel to Palestine, to the holy places, and the Caliphs patronized these journeys, which delivered money to the country and the goods, allowing the pilgrims to build churches and the hospital.Looking like a topic ... Knights and chivalry Knight is a medieval noble honorable title in Europe. Knighthood as a military and landowner estate arose in francs in connection with the transition in the VIII century
But when Palestine, by the end of the 12th century, fell under the power of the radical dynasty of the Fatimides, began the brutal oppression of Christian pilgrims, even more increased after the conquest of Syria and Palestine by Selzhuki in 1076.
Anxious news of the cropping of holy places and the bad handling of the Bogomolers, called the idea of a military campaign to the Liberation of the Holy Sepulcher in Western Europe, soon concluded due to the energetic activities of Pope Urban II, convened spiritual cathedrals and Piacense and Clermont (1095), In which the question of the campaign against the wrong were resolved in the affirmative, and the thousandths of the people who were present at the Clermont Cathedral: "Deus Lo Volt" ("such the will of God") became the slogan of the Crusaders.
The mood in favor of the movement was prepared in France with eloquent stories about the disasters of Christians in the Holy Land of one of Pilgrims Peter Distownik, who was also present at the Clermont Cathedral and inspired by the bright picture of Christians in the east.
The speech at the first crusade was appointed on August 15, 1096, but earlier than the preparations for him were over, the crowds of the simple people, under the leadership of Peter Dressman and the French knight of Walter Golat, went hiking through Germany and Hungary without money and stocks.
Having indulged in the path of robbery and all kinds of inconsistencies, they were partly exterminated by the Hungarians and Bulgarians, he partly reached the Greek empire. Byzantine Emperor Alexei Komnin hurried to send them through the Bosphorus to Asia, where they were finally interrupted by the Turks in battle with Niii (October 1096). Others followed the first random crowd: so, 15,000 Germans and Larringans, under the leadership of the priest Gotshllka, went through Hungary and, engaged in the Priest and Donutany cities beating the Jews, were exterminated by the Hungarians.
Crusaders go to the first crusade. Miniature from the manuscript of Guillaume Tirsky, XIII century.
This militia performed in the first crusade in the fall of 1096, in the form of 300,000 well armed and excellent disciplined warriors, under the leadership of the most valiant and noble knights of that time: next to Gottfried Boulevard, Duke Larring, the main leader, and his brothers Baldwin and Eustiat (Estate), shone; Count Gogo Vermandoua, Brother of French King Philip I, Duke Robert Norman (Brother of the English King), Count Robert Flande, Raimund Toulouse and Stefan Chartresky, Bohamund, Prince Tartan, Tancred, Apuli and others. As a papal governor and Leah, the army accompanied the Bishop of Ademar Monteilsky.
Participants of the first crusade came to various ways to Constantinople, where the Greek Emperor Alexei forced them from their fraud and promise to recognize his feudal serenity of future conquests. In early June, 1097 the Crusader's army appeared before Nicea, the capital of the Saljuksky Sultan, and after the last of the latter was subjected to extreme difficulties and deprivation. Nevertheless, they were taken Antioch, Edessa (1098) and, finally, on June 15, 1099, Jerusalem, who was at the time in the hands of the Egyptian Sultan, unsuccessfully tried to restore its power and broken by the head during Askalon.
Taking Jerusalem Crusaders in 1099. Miniature of XIV or XV centuries.
At the end of the first crusade, Gottfried Boulevard was proclaimed the first Jerusalem king, but he refused this title, calling himself only the "Defender of the Holy Sepulcher"; Next year he died, and he was inherited by his Baldoon I (1100-1118), who won the battlefield, Berit (Beirut) and Sidon. Baldwin I inherited Baldwin II (1118-31), and the last Fulka (1131-43), in which the Kingdom has reached the greatest expansion of its limits. (See the article The foundation of crusading states.)
Under the influence of the news of the winning of Palestine in 1101, the new army of the Crusaders was moved into the small Asia, under the leadership of the Duke of Velfa Bavarian from Germany and two others, from Italy and France, who were a total of 260,000 people and exterminated by Seljuk.
In 1144, Edessa was taken away by the Turks, after which Papa Evgeny III announced a second crusade (1147-1149), freeing all the crusaders not only from their sins, but at the same time from their duties regarding their Libens. The dreamy preacher Bernard Clervosky managed, thanks to its irresistible eloquence, bring to the second crusade of the King of French Louis VII and Emperor of Conrad III Gajenstaofen. Two troops, which were in total, according to Western chroniclers, about 140,000 world riders and Million Infantry People were held in 1147 and headed through Hungary and Constantinople and Malaya Asia, due to lack of food, diseases in troops and after several large lesions. Edessa was left, and the attempt of attacking Damascus failed. Both sovereign returned to their possessions, and the second crusade ended in complete failure.
Crusader States in the East
The reason for the third Cross campaign (1189-1192) was the conquest of Jerusalem on October 2, 1187 by the powerful Egyptian Sultan Saladin (see Article Capture of Jerusalem Saladin). Three European sovereign participated in this campaign: Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, French King Philip II Augustus and English Richard Lion Heart.
The first came to the third crusade by Friedrich, whose army on the way increased to 100,000 people; He chose a way along the Danube, on the road was to overcome the mistake of the incredulous Greek emperor Isaac Angel, who only the capture of Adrianopol prompted to give a free passage to the Crusaders and help them cross themselves in Maly Asia. Here, Friedrich broke Turkish troops in two battles, but soon after that he drowned when crossing the Kalikadn River (Salph).
Son His, Friedrich, led the army further through Antioch to Akke, where he found other crusaders, but soon died. The city of Accca in 1191 surrendered to the surrender to the French and English kings, but those who opened the parties forced between them forced the French king to return to their homeland. Richard remained to continue the third crusade, but, desperate in the hope of winning Jerusalem, in 1192 concluded a truce with Saladin for three years and three months, according to which Jerusalem remained in possession of Sultan, and Christians received a coastal strip from Tira to Jaffa, as well as the right of free Visit the holy coffin.
Friedrich Barbarossa - Crusader
The fourth crusade (1202-1204) had the initial goal of Egypt, but the participants agreed to assist the angel angel to be expelled to Emperor, to go to the Byzantine throne again, which was crowned with success. Isaac soon died, and the Crusaders, devastating from their goal, continued to war and took Constantinople, after which the leader of the fourth crusade, Count Baldown Flande, was elected emperor of the new Latin Empire, which existed, however, only 57 years old (1204-1261).
Participants in the fourth crusade of Konstantinople. Miniature to the Venetian manuscript "History" Vilgarduan, OK. 1330.
Not taking into account the strange crusade of children in 1212, caused by the desire to experience the reality of the will of God, the fifth crusade should be called the campaign of King Andrei II of Hungarian and Duke Leopold VI Austrian in Syria (1217-1221). At first, he went sluggish, but after arriving from the west of new reinforcements, the crusaders moved to Egypt and took the key to access this country from the sea - the city of Damietta. However, an attempt to seize the major Egyptian center Mansurus did not give success. The knights left Egypt, and the fifth crusade ended with the restoration of the former borders.
Storm the crusaders of the fifth trend of the Tower of Damietta. Artist Cornelis Clas Van Viringen, OK. 1625.
Sixth Cross Cam
The sixth crusade (1228-1229) performed the German Emperor Friedrich II Gaugenstaofen. For a long deferment began a campaign of Pope, Friedrich from the Church (1227). The following year, the emperor still went to the east. Using the discords of the Muslim Muslims, Friedrich started with the Egyptian Sultan Al-Kamil negotiations on the peaceful return of Christians of Jerusalem. To support their demands, the emperor and Palestinian knights were besieged and took Jaffu. Threatened by the Sultan Damascusch, Al-Kamil signed a ten-year-old truce with Friedrich, returning to Jerusalem Christians and almost all the lands, who have once taken away from them by Saladin. At the end of the sixth crusade, Friedrich II crowned in the Holy Land of the Jerusalem Crown.
The violation of the truce by some pilgrims was led to the resumption of the struggle for Jerusalem and to its final loss of Christians in 1244. Jerusalem took away the Turkic tribe of the Khorezmians, displaced from the Caspian regions of the Mongols during the movement of the latter to Europe.
Seventh crusade hike
The fall of Jerusalem caused the seventh crusade (1248-1254) of Louis of IX French, who gave a lot of illness to fight for the coffin of the Lord. In August 1248, the French crusaders sailed to the east and spent the winter in Cyprus. In the spring of 1249, the Army of Louis Saint landed in the Neal Delta. Due to the indecision of the Egyptian commander of Fahreddin, she almost easily took Damietta.
Having stayed there for several months in anticipation of reinforcements, Crusaders at the end of the year moved to Cairo. But the city of Mansur has the path to them the Saracense army. After grave efforts, the participants in the seventh crusade were able to cross the Nile sleeve and even to break into Mansur, but Muslims, taking advantage of the division of Christian detachments inflicted them a big damage.
The crusaders should retreat to Damiette, but as a result of false concepts about the Knight's credit, they did not hurry to do it. Soon they were surrounded by major Saracense forces. Having lost many soldiers from diseases and hunger, the participants of the seventh crusade (almost 20 thousand people) were forced to surrender.
Another 30 thousand of their comrades died. Christian captives (including the king himself) were released only for a huge redemption. Damiett had to return to the Egyptians. After floating from Egypt to Palestine, Louis Saint back in the Akku, where he was engaged in ensuring Christian possessions in Palestine, until the death of his mother forms (Recents of France) did not withdraw him to their homeland.
Louis Saint Louis Cross
The eighth crusade
Due to the complete intactness of the seventh crusade and permanent attacks on the Palestine Christians of the New Egyptian (Mamluk) Sultan Babers, the same King of France Louis IX Saint took the eighth (and last) crusade in 1270. Crusaders at first thought again to land in Egypt, but Brother Louis, the King of Naples and Sicily Carl Anjou, bowed them to swim in Tunisia, who was an important trading competitor of southern Italy.
Going ashore in Tunisia, the French participants of the eighth crusade began to wait for the arrival of the troops of Charles. In their close camp, a plague began, from which Louis Holy himself died. Mor caused the army of the Crusaders such losses that came soon after the death of Brother Karl Anju preferred to stop the campaign on the terms of payment by the ruler of Tunisia Contribution and the liberation of Christian prisoners.
The death of Saint Louis in Tunisia during the eighth crusade. Artist Jean Fuku, OK. 1455-1465
End of crusades
In 1286, the Antioch was departed to Turkey, in 1289 - Lebanese Tripoli, and in 1291 - ACKA, the last major possession of Christians in Palestine, after which they had to refuse from other possessions, and the entire holy land was connected again in Mohammedan. So they ended the cross hikes, which were completed by Christians of so many losses and have not reached the originally intended goal.
The results and consequences of crusades, but they did not remain without deep influence on the entire warehouse of the social and economic life of Western European peoples. The consequence of crusades can be considered strengthening the power and the values of the Pap, as the main instigators, further - the elevation of royal authorities due to the death of many feudalists, the emergence of independence of urban communities who received, due to the impoverishment of the nobility, the opportunity to buy benefits from their labs; Introduction in Europe borrowed crafts and arts borrowed from the eastern peoples. Follows
Crusades were an increase in the west of the class of free farmers, thanks to the release from the serf dependence of the peasants participating in the campaigns. Crusades contributed to the success of trade, opening new ways to her east; conducive to the development of geographical knowledge; Expanding the scope of mental and moral interests, they enriched poetry new plots.
Another important outcome of the cross hikes was the nomination on the historical scene of a secular knightly class, which made a refining element of medieval life; The consequence of them there was also the emergence of spiritual and knight orders (John, Templar and Teutons), who played an important role in history.
If there were no crusades ...
Could it be?
Here it is necessary to remember one thing. Seljuky Turks captured Jerusalem in 1076th year. And the first crusade, the peasant, occurred only twenty years later - in the 1096th. And the point is not at all that the news from the light of land in Europe went for so long, but there was serious problems with the search for those who want. Because the first call for Christians to go east with weapons in his hands sounded in 1071th. Then it was about the help of Byzantium, which faced the invasion of the Seljuk and could not resist him.
But on that call few people responded. When Selzhuki got to Jerusalem, then the Vatican had not only an iron reason for the announcement of the war, but also a very good stimulus pull up more volunteers to this war.Looking like a topic ... Templars Templar "Temmers" - a spiritual and knightly order, founded in the Holy Land in 1119 by a small group of knights led by Gogo de Pain after the first Cross
The fact is that the Temple of the Holy Sepulcher was the place of pilgrimage, where thousands of Europeans were sent annually. The word "Jerusalem", said the Catholics much more than the word "Byzantium". Finally, for the holy city, they were ready to shed blood, which would not tell about the empire completely alien to them.
The appeal to the campaign was distributed by the predecessors of Urban II - Grigory VII and Viktoriii. In the first case, the dad managed to collect the army of several tens of thousands of people, but in the Holy Land it did not go because of exacerbation in the relationship of the Vatican with the German emperors.
Several Italian cities have responded to Viktor's call, which built a small military fleet and attacked Saracin's ships from the northern shore of Africa. The appeal of Pontify, they perceived as a legitimate reason to untie the defensive war for the safety of their ports, which were strongly suffering from the raids of Muslim pirates.
But for the 1095th year, the situation in Europe calmed down somewhat. For a couple of years, as the West lived without great wars, and many large feudal feudalists had a political reason for a trip to Jerusalem. This convincingly shows a list of those who headed the first crusade. Bohamundutrentic needed lands, Raimundutulouse - good relations with Rome. Count Robert Flandine literally forced to go to the campaign of the King of France Filipp I. A significant role in the promotion of the campaign was also played by two more factors: papal worses and zealous preachers.
Urban II promised, for example, a complete and lifelong vacation of sins to everyone who will go to liberate Jerusalem. That is, a potential crusader received not only immediate indulgence, but also the right to freely sin to the end of his days. This idea in Europe was actively spread by preachers, the most famous of which was Peter Amiens, also known as Peter Dressman.
His fiery sermons contributed to the fact that thousands of Istivo believers of Catholics stood under the banners of Christ the Histority. Disputes about whether the wilderness was sent by Pope or acted according to his own aspire, they do not give an unequivocal answer to this question. His activity, however, led to the fact that in Jerusalem, the unpretentious rhe of peasants, beggars and other mobiles moved.
These people did not know where Jerusalem was, but they were sure that the Lord himself would lead them under his walls. This goal ended tragically, which is not to say about the campaign of the feudal. By the way, one of his leaders - Gottfried Boulevard, went to fight, inspired by the speeches of Peter Amiena.
Crusades were quite a lot. Personal rooms have eight of them, but the list is not limited to this.
This number does not include, for example, an arielicagon crusade, the campaign of the poor, the campaign of children and a number of small shares of European feudal.
Behind the title "Crusades", two centuries of continuous wars are hiding in the Middle East. In these wars, all states of that region were involved, plus a few European powers. So in this chapter we can consider only the individual political aspects of the campaign. So:
1. New sequence of English kings
As you know, one of the leaders of the first crusade was Robert Norman, the eldest son of Wilhelm's conqueror, who, according to Father's will, did not inherit the English throne. He got only Normandy, while England walked his younger brother Wilhelm. Robert commended this, but only what is called, one-time.
He gave way to England's throne to one brother, but was not going to give up the second - henrich Boklerka. And since Wilhelm II died childlessly, having passed the throne to the youngest brother, then Robert stated his rights to the throne. He will be at the time in Normandy and, for sure, would have won the war. But at the time of the death of his brother in Sicily, where he rested after a hike. While Robert was going to fight, Heinrich managed to strengthen his defense. As a result, Robert not only lost the struggle for the throne, but also he in prison, where he spent the rest of his days.
2. Alienor Aquitan not divorced with Louis VII
Everything is simple enough. Alienor and her husband - Louis of the VII-th young, rauraved the cross campaign. France's king, who went to liberate Edess, for some reason he took his wife with him. Alienor in the campaign was boring, especially since her husband's army went to the Holy Earth not by the sea, but on land, through the whole of Europe.
Louis has suffered a full fiasco in a campaign, and Alienora changed him with the prince of Antioch, which accelerated the divorce. The speech here, by the way, is not only about the integrity of the marriage. Alienor was then the wife of the King of England Heinrich II, to which all its French possessions were moved. Thus, Heinrich became the ruler not only in England, but also half of France, which noticeably complicated the relations of the two countries, becoming the basis for a long conflict.
3. Treasury war for two hundred years earlier
Richard Lion Heart, taking into account the circumstances presented above, could not be born at all. However, if a person appeared on the world with his character and abilities, it would be impossible to avoid the English-French War. Too great was the value of Aquitaine, Anjou, Normandy and other areas that were in France, vassally depended on Paris, but were part of English possessions. Richard, who cleaned in Jerusalem, French affairs went to Samotek.
As a result, he and his brother John simply lost all these lands, formerly a heritage of several generations of their ancestors.
Richard, however, tried to correct the situation. Returning to England after the hike and captivity, he went to fight to France, where he later died. I will remain in Europe, and the fate of his French possessions would have formed differently.
4. Byzantium would survive the invasion of Ottomans
In the fight against sedrates and other threats from East Byzantium accounted for tight.Looking like a topic ... History of the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Eastern Roman Empire (395 - 1453) - the state formed in 395 due to the final section of the Roman Empire
But not one war did not have such severe consequences for the empire as the fourth crusade. Yes, Byzantium slowly drowned by internal conflicts and squabbles. The margin of safety, however, was rather high. The Empire lured the territory, but this process could stretch for hundreds of years. But the fourth crusade has destroyed her supports and bases.
Crusaders captured, plundered and burned Constantinople, planted on the throne of their gold, and then the Eastern Roman Empire was completely abolished at all.
On the ruins of Byzantium, the Latin Empire arose, which existed 60 years. Other regions formed their own powers, the strongest of which was so-called the Nicene Empire. The remains of the former greatness with the center in Nahei. It was Nickeans in 1264th restored Byzantium, only not in the previous borders. It was already a pitiful similarity of the former greatness. Such a state did not have a chance to resist serious external threats.
5. Full subordination of PAP to German emperors
In the XIII century, the Holy Throne had no more dangerous enemy than Friedrich Igorgenhustafen - Emperor of Germany. The Vatican conflict with him was solved only in 1225, when Friedrich was forcibly sent to the campaign. There, the emperor spent two and a half years, agreed with Egypt about the return of Jerusalem under the control of Christians and, without a shed or a drop of blood, successfully completed his expedition. The strategic initiative in the affairs of Europe was, however, lost. Uslav Friedrich to the Holy Earth, Rome did not achieve victory over him, but saved his independence.
6. Templars, Hospitallers, Teutons.
These orders arose and formed because of the war in the Holy Land. Do not be it, and all the need for such organizations would have fallen by itself.
Falling for a thousand years ago, we will see a rather unusual picture. Pretty wild and backward West went war to the civilized east. Antioch, Damascus, Edess and other cities that were the priority goals of the Crusaders were cultural centers of all Asia. Captured later Tripoli - represented a stronghold trade of the Mediterranean.
Not to mention the fact that the Muslims of the Holy Land had an idea of such things that did not dream of Europeans.
Here, for example, washing hands before eating, that the medieval feudal would seem wildness. Mathematics, astronomy, music, and, especially, medicine have been developed here. We reached the memories of the Persian physician, who was in Jerusalem in the 1099th year. It was then that the city captured the Crusaders.
The physician was invited to treat wounded "francs" (so they called all Europeans in the east). To help he sufferers, however, could not. He was pushed out of the Capellan, who argued that the heaven of the wounded was needed exclusively by the Word of God. There is nothing surprising in the fact that the Muslims of the Holy Land perceived crusades as the invasion of the barbarians.
However, the crusades have greatly spurred Europe in culturally. Feudals-conquerors faced the wealth of Egypt and Syria, the merchants saw the ground in them for enrichment. So the fruits of the culture of the East began to penetrate the west, becoming an integral part of Europe's life.
As an epilogue ...
Children's crusade - adopted in historiography Name of the 2312 People's Movement.
At the beginning of 1212, thousands of peasants (including children and adolescents) from Germany and France gathered in the army to conquer the coffin of the Lord in Jerusalem (according to some reports, the French children were not headed in Jerusalem, and in Paris to the courtyard of Philip August, where a certain preacher He promised to submit a letter from Jesus Christ and create wonders; Philip ordered to dissolve children at home).
In May 1212, when the German People's Army passed through Cologne, there were about 25,000 children and adolescent children in His ranks in order to reach Palestine from there. In the chronicles of the XIII century, this campaign is mentioned for more than fifty times, which received the name of the "crusade of children".
In France, in May of the same year, the shepherd Stephen had a vision from the club: he was Jesus in the image of the White Monk, Velél stand at the head of the new Crusade, in which only children would take part in order to release Jerusalem with the name of God on lips. Perhaps the idea of the crusade of children was associated with the "holiness" and the "unquaintance" of young souls, as well as the judgment that they cannot be caused by physical harm to weapons.
The shepherd began to preach so passionately that the children ran out of the house after him. The Saint Forces was announced by Wanda, in which more than 30,000 adolescents were gathered by the middle of summer. Stephen was worshiped by the Wonderworker. In July, they went to Marseille with the singing of Psalms and Khorugovy, to sailing to the holy land, but no one thought about the ships in advance. The militant was often joined by criminals; Playing the role of participants, they were allowed at the expense of the falsities of pious Catholics
Reaching Marseille, the participants of the campaign daily prayed that the sea was broken before them. Finally, two local merchants - Gogo Ferreus and Guyom Porktic- "settled" above them and granted 7 ships at their disposal, each of which accompanied about 700 knights to swim into the holy earth.
Their trace was lost, and only 18 years later, in 1230, a monk appeared in Europe, accompanied by children (and German children, in all likelihood, accompanied the clergy, although it was not proven), and he said that ships With young crusaders, they arrived to the shores of Algeria, where they were already waiting for them. It turned out merchants provided them with ships not from grace, but consistent with Muslim workers .
In general, the "use" of children and adolescents (and for whom, in fact, calls are intended in Tik current to go to unauthorized promotions for themselves know ?) For political purposes has a long tradition ...
[English. crusades; Spanish cruzadas; Italian. CROCIATE; it. Kreuzzüge; Franz. Croisades], in the Middle Ages, military expeditions authorized by a papal throne and under the slogan of protection Christ. Shrines and the liberation of land from "incorrect" (Muslims, pagans, heretics). Participants of K. p. Brought the crusaded vow, received indulgence and special papal privileges. Initially, the story of K. P. Was associated with the struggle against Muslims for controlling the sv. Earth (Con. XI - Con. XIII century), but later the privileges of the Crusaders were distributed to the participants of the reconquists in Spain, hiking against heretics in Zap. and center. Europe, as well as him. "Continuous" campaign to Prussia and Livonia.
Taking Antioch Crusaders in 1097. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Zamar lands" Wilhelm Tirsky. OK. 1287 (BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. BIBL. MUNICIP. 142. FOL. 49V)Taking Antioch Crusaders in 1097. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Zamar lands" Wilhelm Tirsky. OK. 1287 (BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. BIBL. MUNICIP. 142. FOL. 49V)
"Crusades" began to be used in the beginning. XIII century; He received widespread only in a new time. In medieval sources with respect to K. P., As a rule, the words that denoted travel or pilgrimage were used: Via Hierosolymitana, Iter Hierosolymitanum (Path in Jerusalem), Peregrinatio, Passagium (travel), Expeditio, Iter In Terram Sanctam (path to holy land). The concepts that emphasized the divine origin of K. Ph are also used .: Bellum Sacrum (Sacred War), Opus Dei (God of God), Negotium Jesu Christi (Enterprise Jesus Christ). Later, Auxilium Terrae Sanctae (Help Holy Land), Transitio (transition) and others began to be used. Participants K. P. Called Peregrini (pilgrims), Christiani (Christians), Pauperes (poor people), Milites Christi (Knights of Christ), Hierosolymitani (Jerusalemlane), and from the XIII century. Also Cruciferi (Crusaders) and Crucesignati (marked with the sign of the Cross) (Constable G.
The Historiography of The Crusades // The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and The Muslim World. 2001. P. 11-12).
For a long time as in foreign ( Runciman. 1951. Vol. one; Mayer. 2000) and in domestic ( Fences. 1980) historiography as one of the important factors that caused K. p., Was considered socio-economic: traditionally indicated to unfavorable with tons. Weather conditions for years on the eve of the 1st Crusade ("Seven Thick Years"), cropping and hunger in many regions of Zap. Europe. The level of agriculture in the XI century, as well as the growth of the population did not give the opportunity to cope with the difficulties arising. At the same time, the development of commodity-money relations strengthened the process of separation of the medieval society and led to an increase in the material needs of representatives of the nobility; These needs could no longer be satisfied only at the expense of internal colonization. Gradually rooted the idea that the true source of wealth is in the east. Italian merchants from Venice, Bari, Amalfi, later from Pisa and Genoa brought to West from Byzantium and from the levance of jewels and spices, silk fabrics, luxury items.
An important cause of K. P. It was considered the approval of the principle of the Majorate (the inheritance of the father's ownership of the Senior Son), as a result of which younger children had to take care of the acquisition of new lands and participate in expeditions to the East. In modern studies, this statement is criticized (see: Riley-Smith. 1977; IDEM. 2005; Madden. 1999; Housley. 2006; IDEM. 2008). As a rule, the senior family members participated in K. P. The older family members participated, the younger continued to lead the economy. Participation in K. p. Theoretically gave the opportunity to solve the economic problems of the family, but did not preserve convincing evidence that the participants of the first K. p. Upon returning to Europe, it was possible to significantly increase their level of welfare. On the contrary, with financial tons. K. p. Were extremely expensive enterprise. So, on the eve of the 1st Cross Write the costs needed to participate in the Franz expedition. Knight, exceeded the annual income of its farm 4-5 times ( Grossman. 1965. P. 5-8; Riley-Smith. 1986. P. 43; Edgington S. Motivation // The Crusades. 2006. Vol. 3. P. 854).
A large role in the origin of the crusading movement was played by a political factor. The decomposition of the management system that existed in the Raboling era, and the growth of centrifugal trends contributed to the concentration of political, adm. and the judicial authorities in the field in the hands of large aristocrats, based on their own resources. The lack of control from the central government led to an increase in violence, to military clashes between feudal clans. There was a new military elite - the knighthood, the ideology of the swarm had a great influence on the formation of a crusader movement ( Bull. 1993. P. 8-9). In the conditions of Militarization of the Society of Catholic. The church and royal authorities tried to limit violence, supporting the movements of the "God's World" (PAX DEI) with the forbids to kill civilians and cause damage to the clerics, peasants, women and children and "God's truce" (Treuga Dei), which implied the rejection of hostilities to certain Days of the Church Year. To control the observance of the "God of the World" and "God's" Armistice ", which was usually announced at the cathedrals, and also for the protection of church property were attracted by knights, including and freed from punishment for violence. The papacy needed military force capable of protecting his interests during the struggle for an investiture with GERM. imp. Heinrich IV (1084-1105). Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) organized a large-scale campaign to recruit the knights, which were supposed to be a papal army - t. N. knighthood sv. Peter (Militia S. Petri). It was believed that the award for this service, perceived as evidence of loyalty to the apostle, will be his intercession on a terrible court. T. about., In the XI century. Catholic. The church sought not only to limit violence, but also to the usurpation of the right to its legitimation. The result of this process was the proclamation of the 1st crusade in the Clermont Cathedral (1095).
Development of the idea K.P. promoted the foreign policy situation in the last third of the XI century. The Byzantine Empire experienced a period of internecine struggle and suffered defeat from Pechenegs and Normanov. In 1055, Seljuky Turks captured Baghdad and began to conquer M. Asia, Syria and Palestine. After the defeat of the troops, the wiser. imp. The novel IV Diogen (1068-1071) by the Sultan Alp-Arsalan (1063-1072) in the Battle of Manzikert (1071) of Byzantium has lost most of M. Asia. In 1073-1074 Pope Gregory VII planned to hold a military campaign, the purpose of which should have become the liberation of the vistent. Territories from Tuil-Seljukov, however, the conflict of Pope with Imp. Heinrich IV made it impossible to organize a major expedition outside Europe.
Relig had crucial importance in the development of the crusader movement. factor. Christ. The idea that the person is only a wanderer, an alien (Peregrinus) on Earth, has acquired a special relevance in this era. Psychological soil for K. p. East prepared pilgrimage on St. Earth, who received widespread in the XI century. The goal of the travel in the earthly Jerusalem is the acquisition of Heavenly Jerusalem, that is, the salvation of the soul. Since with t. S. Medieval Relig. Consciousness The life of a person was the arena of the struggle of God and the devil, the opposition of virtues and sins, the decision to go to the crusade meant a break with sin. Preachers talked about the ability to achieve salvation by repentance, visiting the Earth and performing special ascetic feats (see: Lucitskaya. 2003. P. 234-235). However, after the seizure of Jerusalem by Seljuk Turki (1073) and the rivalry began in the city between the Seljukski military leaders and the Fatimids to access the coffin of the Lord was difficult. The stories returned from Palestine Pilgrims about the persecution of Christians caused the desire to take revenge on "wrong". In many modern studies, K. P. Are considered primarily as armed pilgrimages on St. Earth ( Flori. 2001; Riley-Smith. 2005; Constable. 2008), although a number of researchers challenge the legitimacy of a similar approach (see, for example: Tyerman. 2005). In addition, in the XI century. in zap. Europe has noted an increase in the Relig. Exultations frequent became examples of strict asceticism and hermitting, ideas about the imminent end of the world were widespread ( Guiberti Abbati novigenti GESTA DEI PER FRANCOS // RHC, OCC. 1879. Vol. 4. P. 138-139, 239; Orderic. Vital. Hist. ECCL. 1975. Vol. 5. P. 8). Since the eschatological expectations associated with 1000 g. (CP: Open 20. 2-7) were not implemented, in the XI century. There was an idea that the end of the world would come only when Jerusalem will be disheighted from Muslims and becomes Christian. The peoples professing Islam gradually began to be treated as an antichrist servants ( Roberti Monachi. Historia iHerosolimitana // RHC, OCC. 1866. Vol. 3. P. 828). The confrontation between Arab affected the formation of a negative attitude towards Muslims. Threat in the West in the VII-XI centuries, including reconquist on the Pyrenean P-Oves; The first successes reconquists prepared the ground for wider movements under the slogan of the sacred war for the sake of the Lord.
Foreigned as a result of the connection of the idea of pilgrimage in St. Earth with the teachings about the Holy War ( ERDMANN. 1977. P. XXXIII; Lucitskaya. 2003). The tradition of visiting holy places existed from early Christian times. Usually, the pilgrimage was considered as an act of repentance for the sins committed; In some cases, it could be accompanied by the attachment of the vow. 3 types of pilgrimage were distinguished: for the execution of imposed epitimia; voluntary and, as a rule, combined with the performance of hobs (Peregrinatio Religiosa); Resettlement to holy places. Pilgrimage should have been committed without a weapon, although in the XI century. There are cases of violation of this rule ( Riley-Smith J. An Army on Pilgrimage // Jerusalem The Golden. 2014. P. 105).
The origins of the Sacrum of the Holy War (Bellum Sacrum) lie in the Concept of the Fair War (see Bellum Justum. ). BLI. Augustine, borrowing this concept from Roman law, formulated the main criteria of a fair war: the decision on its beginning should be made legitimate power only after all peaceful means are exhausted to resolve the conflict; She must chase a fair goal (Justa Causa) - restoration of peace and law enforcement - and keep with clean intentions. In addition, BLZH. Augustine considered war as a way to protect the sinner from the atrocity, i.e., as a manifestation of love for neighbor ( Riley-Smith. 2002). This teaching was developed by Isidore Seville, who paid special attention to the defensive nature of the fair War: they could only lead to the return of illegally taken property or the reflection of the enemy attack. Later views Christ. Theologians on a fair war were systematized by EP. Anselm Lukksky, Ivo Chartresky, Grazian and Catholic. sv. Foma Aquinsky. Pope John XVIII (1003-1009) and Lion IX (1049-1054) used this concept to justify the fight against Rome by Arabs and Normans: it was argued that the one who would die in the fight against the invaders, which was called "Holy Sv. Peter, "will be awarded eternal salvation.
K., therefore, were the Holy War: the expedition proclaimed the legitimate ruler in the face of Pope Roman, the campaign had a fair reason - the return of Christian shrines and illegally occupied lands and pursued the good goal - the achievement of the world. At the same time, K. p. Considered as an act of repentance, which united them with pilgrimages. The connection of these ideas was innovative. Although the camout is already going. imp. Irakli (610-641) against Persians (622-628) and Nikifora II Foki campaign (963-969) against Muslims were depicted as a sacred war, it was in Zap. Europe war first begins to be treated as a means of redemption of sins.
Participants K. P. In repentance, brought vow to visit St. Earth; His execution guaranteed the acquisition of indulgence, first understood as liberation from all previously imposed punishments for sins (Iter Illud Pro Omni Poenitentia Reputetur - Mansi. T. 20. Col. 816), and the abuse of sins as such was committed during the sacrament of repentance. Decree of the Lateransky IV Cathedral (1215), the indulgence was equated to the complete release of sins, and the only way to get it was to participate in K. p. (Cod. P. 267-271; See: Purcell. 1975. P. 36-38).
Since preparation for the 4th Crusade (1202-1204), indulgence was also provided to persons who bought the crusader vow, which was largely due to the need to collect funds to pay for transportation of troops in Venetian ships. At the time of the campaign, his participants enjoyed special rights received in the XII century. The name "Cross Privilege" (Privilegium Crucis): Families of the Crusaders, as well as their property proceeded to protect the Catholic Church; Crusaders were guaranteed deferments in court cases and debt payment; They had exemption from taxes; They were filmed with church excommunication, they had the opportunity to enter into transactions with those who were excommunicated from the Church; there was a delay in the fulfillment of vassal obligations before returning home; Crusaders also received the right to sell or lay out their putters in order to obtain funds needed to participate in the campaign. The most fully these privileges are set forth in Bulle "Ad Liberandam" (1215) Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) (Constitutiones Concilii Quatri Lateranensis Una Cum Commentariis Glossatorum / ED. A. García Y García. Vat., 1981. P. 110-118 . (Monumic. Ser. A: Corpus Glossatorum; 2)).
The crucifixion of the crusaders usually took place during the preaching of the crusade of the Pope, Archbishop, or another authorized person. The crusader gave vow to visit the holy places and received a symbol of this hob from the preacher from the hands of the preacher - the cross, which then turned on his clothes (the cross should have been worn until the end of the campaign). Then the Crusader received the blessing of the bishop or the priest of his diocese; Bud. The participant of the campaign was handed the symbols of pilgrimage - Suma and staff. From the 3rd four. XII century Both part of the ceremony - the attachment of the vow and blessings - were carried out at the same time ( Brundage. 1966; Riley-Smith J. An Army on Pilgrimage // Jerusalem The Golden. 2014. R. 103-116).
The first crusade (1096-1099) was the exception of the crusade (1096-1099)) Pope declared Bullah, in which the need for a military expedition justified, called Christians to take a cross, and also listed the privileges of those who bring the crusadic vow. Then the text of the Bully was sent according to architects and church provinces, where the detachments of the Crusaders were formed. In 1181, Pope Alexander III (1159-1181) attempted to systematically distribute these documents among the clerics. The preaching of K. P. Could pronounce both at the highest church meetings (at the Councils, Synodians, etc.) and at meetings of royal and urban councils. In Innokentia III, special executive tips were organized in architects; Their members had the powers of papal legates. Soviets submitted delegates, which were sent to the Diocese; they had to bring information about the obligatory sermons to the clergy of the clergy. All the laity under the threat of church punishment should be present at these sermons; For those present, partial indulgence was envisaged - temporary release from repentance (in con. XIII century. Liberation was given for 1 year and 40 days) ( Lloyd. 1999. P. 42-47). Nevertheless, a number of researchers questioned the ability to organize the widespread spread of papal messages and the preaching of K. p. At the parish level (see: Maier C. T. Propaganda // The Crusades. 2006. Vol. 3. P. 984-988).
In the formation of the army of the Crusaders, the role of folk preachers was great. So, it precisely because of their influence on the population, a hike should be organized. Peter Amuteskogo (1096), the crusade of children (1212), 1st campaign of the shepherds (1251). Pope Roman tried to put the preaching of K. p. Under their control, appointed before each campaign of Leah, responsible for the sermon. From the 20th year. XIII century Pope was actively attracted for the preaching of K. p. Representatives of the beggar orders (Franciscans and Dominicans). At about the same time, special guides appeared containing preaching samples; The most detailed one - op. "On the preaching of the Holy Cross" (De Praedicationa Sanctae Crucis) of the Master of the Master of the Order of the Dominicans Humbert, compiled in 1266-1268.
Sources of financing K. p. Were both private donations and special taxes on cleric income in papacy. On the eve of the 4th crusade (1202-1204), Dad Innokenti III set a tax in the amount of 1/40 annual income of Franz. clerics. During preparation for the 5th Crusade (1217-1221), all clerics under the threat of excommunication were obliged to donate 1/20 of its 3-year income for an expedition. The amount of tax payments could vary and amount to 1/10 annual income. In some cases, representatives of the clergy tried to protest against tax collection. Europe. The rulers charged taxes on K. p. from the incomes of citizens, and sometimes from all laity, in some cases from the cleric income. Dr. Sources of financing K.P. were taxes on the income of Jews or the means obtained during the confiscation of their property, as well as fines imposed by the church and secular authorities in punishment for serious sins or crimes. To control the tax collection, the Pope directed their legates (see: Constable G. The Financial of the Crusades in the 12th center. // Outremer: Stud. In The History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem. 1982. P. 64-88).
The collection of money could be entrusted to representatives of secular power or members of the spiritual and knight orders who also engaged in storage and transportation of cash. Later, these functions began to exercise the ITAL. Banks that delivered money from the local office in the Apostolic Chamber. Pope Gregory X (1271-1276) divided the entire Catholic. World on financial and consulting districts; Papal Kuria prescribed special assemblers there, the task of which included tax collection and the distribution of funds received between the organizers of K. P.
Starting from the 2nd Crusade (1147-1149), military expeditions became more organized. Their leaders were in advance with food, agreed on the transportation and supply of the provincial, water and forage. Anarchy of the first K. p. Forced participants of subsequent expeditions to choose the commander-in-chief of the army of the Crusaders (it was often a formality), enter into contracts and determine the circle of responsibilities of each. Despite these measures, in heterogeneous (including and in ethnically), the troops of the Crusaders have never had a clear plan of campaigns, tough discipline, as well as the full coordination of the actions between the armies.
S. V. Klenyuk
The reason for him was the visant's appeal. imp. Alexey I Comnotine (1081-1118) to Pope Urban II (1088-1099) with a request for help in the fight against Seljuk. The appeal was transferred to Pope by the Byzantine delegation during the cathedral in Piacense (1-7 March 1095). After the death of Sultan Malik-Shaha I (1072-1092), the dynastic crisis began in the state of Seljuk, which gave the grounds to count on the rest of M. Asia. Pope Urban II hoped by providing military assistance to the Byzantine Empire, contribute to the restoration of the unity of the Church, lost as a result of the CAIS 1054. In addition, Pope considered the Byzantine imp. Alexey Comnotine as an important ally in the confrontation of the German Imp. Heinrich IV.
Sultan Alp-Arslan trampled the vistent. imp. Roman IV Diogena. Miniature from the writings of J. Bokcchcho "On the misfortunes of famous people." 2nd four. XV century (Paris. Fr. 232. Fol. 323)Sultan Alp-Arslan trampled the vistent. imp. Roman IV Diogena. Miniature from the writings of J. Bokcchcho "On the misfortunes of famous people." 2nd four. XV century (Paris. Fr. 232. Fol. 323)
The organization of a large-scale military expedition to the East demanded serious training; It began during the Grave of Urban II on South-Zap. Parts of France (June 1095 - Aug. 1096). 27 Nov. 1095, on the eve of the closure of the Clermont Cathedral, Dad officially announced the beginning of the crusade. The sources have survived several. Variants of this speech: According to Fulharya, Chartresky, dad pointed to the help of Vost. Christians as the main goal of the expedition (Fulcheri Carnotensis
Historia Hierosolymitana. I 3 / HRSG. H. Hagenmeyer. HDLB., 1913. S. 130-138), While Chronists Robert Monk and Balderika, Archipel. Dolsk, the goal of the cross campaign was named Jerusalem (Roberti Monachi.
Historia iHerosolimitana. I 1-2 // RHC, OCC. 1866. Vol. 3. P. 727-729;Baldrici Episcopi Dolensis
Historia Jerosolimitana. I 4 // IBID. 1879. Vol. 4. P. 12-15). On the call of Urbana II, Hugo Grande, GR responded to the cross campaign. Vermandoua (he was Brother Franz. Cor. Cor. Philip i), c. Raimund IV Toulouse, Hertz. Robert III Norman, KN. Bohamund Tartan and his nephew Tancred, c. Stefan II Bloua, gr. Robert II FLANDERSKY, HERTS.Gottfried Boulevard
, as well as his brother Baldoon (Cor. Cor. JerusalemBaldown I.
). Since dad did not prepare military operation, but called for a relig. Movement, campaigning by his plan was supposed to head Legate Ademar, Ep. Le Puy. Urban II set an indicative date of the expedition - 15 Aug. 1096 (feast of the Assumption of the PRESS. Virgin Mary) and the place of collecting participants in the campaign - to-Paul.
The first detachments of the Crusaders spoke east in the spring of 1096. In historiography, this expedition was called "People's" crusade or the "hike of poor", although the social composition of the armies was heterogeneous: the peasants, townspeople, clerics, and representatives of the knights participated in the expedition. 12 Apr. 1096 from Berry came out a detachment led by Peter Amiens; Crusaders moved through Champagne, Ile de France, where the army of the Knight of Walter Golatka, Picardia, and then through N. Larorring joined them. When the Crusaders reached Cologne, the detachment of Walter Golyak was ahead of the rest of the troops. The expedition was attended by 6 other detachments with him., Franz. and ital. lands; They made a trip to the con. Apr. And in May 1096, the movement of crusader armies was accompanied by Jewish pogroms in Spaire, Worms, Regensburg and Prague (see: Riley-Smith. 1984; Juden und Christen. 1999). In addition, the participants of the campaign did not have time to be stocking the province, which led to clashes with the population of Bulgaria, Hungary and other states, who were on the path of their following. All R. July, the detachment of Walter Holyak reached a to-field, and 1 Aug. In the capital of the Byzantine Empire, crusaders arrived under the hands. Peter Amutesky. Fearing robberies and existences, the Byzantines hurried to smalle the participants of the expedition to M. Asia (6 Aug. 1096), where they were divided into 2 armies as a result of conflict: French and German-Italian. Imp. Alexey I Komnet advised the participants to stay on the visant. territory prior to arrival of the main troops of the Crusaders, however, in St. German-Italian. The army captured Kserigordon Fortress, belonging to the Rumsky (Iconian) Sultanat, and began to attack on the surroundings of Nicea, the capital of Sultanate. 29 Sep., after a week siege, Sultan Ruma Klych-Arslan I managed to take Xerigordon. Arrived by Franz. The army was crushed 21 Oct. Under Nicea. Walter Holts died in battle. Peter A Amiensky and a small number of Crusaders managed to escape in K-Paul and later join the "crossbar of the barons".
The main armies of the Crusaders made a trip to Aug. 1096 g. Gugo Great with a small squad of Severstz. The knights followed traditions. The pilgrimage route to Bari to cross the sea in the dirrachius (now Durres, Albania), which was associated with the B-field of the old Rome. Egnatian dear. However, after shipwreck in Oct. 1096 His detachment was scattered. Byzantine delivered a googo along with the remnants of his troops in K-Paul. Simultaneously with a detachment of Hugo from N. Larorring, a large army was made under the command of Gottfried Boulevon and Baldwin, K-paradium went down to the lower reaches of the Danube and arrived in the K-Paul 23 dec. 1096 in Aug. 1096 from the south. France reached a numerous army led by Raimund Toulouse and EP. Ademar. Covering the Adriatic by land through Dalmatia and staying in Dirrachia, in Apr. 1097 They arrived in K-Paul. From south. In the autumn of 1096, the army of Normans was put forward under the leadership of Bohamund Tartan. In Oct., crushing through the Adriatic, the Crusaders landed on the Balkan P-Oves south of the dirrachia. The troaster of the Bohemund of Tartansky, having met serious opposition from the local population, arrived at the P-field only 1 Apr. 1097. Large contingents of the Crusaders from Normandy, Flanders and North. France, under the start of Robert Norman, Robert Flandine and Stephen Bloua reached Sev. Italy in November. 1096 Robert Flandine and his detachments immediately crossed the dirrahius and arrived in K-Paul in Apr. 1097 Robert Norman and Stefan Bluasky postponed the crossing until spring and found themselves in the k-field a month later. The presence of foreign military contingents under the walls of the K-Field created a tense situation, but the disunity of the leaders of the Crusaders allowed the imp. Aleksey I a comnin to lead separate negotiations with them and alternately cross them through the Bosphorus. The leaders of the crusader armies brought the emperor on certain conditions of the oath of loyalty, and also pledged to convey to him all former. Visant. Territories that will be disheighted in the Turil.
Siege Nikei. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Overseas Land" Wilhelm Tirsky. Ser. XIII century (Brit. Lib. Yates Thompson. 12. FOL. 13V)Siege Nikei. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Overseas Land" Wilhelm Tirsky. Ser. XIII century (Brit. Lib. Yates Thompson. 12. FOL. 13V)
The first goal of the Crusaders in M. Asia became Nikeya. The total number of Crusaders gathered under Nicea is estimated by researchers in 60 thousand people. (France.
1994. P. 122-142). The siege of the city lasted from May 14 to June 16, 1097. Already on May 16, the main battle was held with the troops of Sultan Kylych-Arslan I, which came to help the garrison of Nice. The battle ended with the complete defeat of Seljuk. At the final stage of the siege, the city was blocked by the vistent. fleet. Representatives imp. Alexey I Comnina managed to join the separatic negotiations with Turks and agree on the delivery of the city to the Emperor, which caused discontent of other participants in the campaign. On June 26, the Crusaders moved deep into M. Asia, but the absence of a single command led to the fact that the army was divided into 2 parts. Avangard, consisting of Norman and Severofrance. Knights, was under the command of Bohemund Tartan. The main forces of the Crusaders, which included armies from the south. France and Lorraine, as well as a detachment of Gogo the Great, passed under the command of Ramunda Toulouse. The division of the Crusaders allowed Kylych-Arslan I to attack the avant-garde of the Bohemund of the Tartan in the battle of Dorilee on July 1, 1097, the Turks used their numerical advantage to push the troops of the tartuentian booze to the camp and put them serious damage, but the army army approached the end of the day. Ramunda Toulouse decided the outcome of the battle in favor of the Crusaders.
The battle in Dorilee broke the resistance of the Seljuk. The crusader's army under the leadership of the vistent. The warlord tathy († after 1099) headed to Cappadocia, from where a straight road to Syria and Palestine opened. On the approaches to Cappadocia, the tankholders and Baldwini detachments were left in the southeast, in the direction of the Kilician Armenia, and occupied the city of Tars (now Tarsus, Turkey) and Mamister. Crusader's troops reunited in Marash (now Kahramanmaras, Turkey), but soon Baldwin again left the army's location and headed for the banks of the river. Euphrates. Later, he received an invitation to become a co-guard of Edessa. In March 1098, the 1st State-in Crusaders was founded - the Edess County.
Capturing Antioch Gotfrid Boulogne and Robert Flande in 1097. Thumbnails from the composition of Jacob from the Marlant "Merzoral History". OK. 1325-1335 (Den Haag. Koninklijke Bibl. Ka xx. Fol. 255)Capturing Antioch Gotfrid Boulogne and Robert Flande in 1097. Thumbnails from the composition of Jacob from the Marlant "Merzoral History". OK. 1325-1335 (Den Haag. Koninklijke Bibl. Ka xx. Fol. 255)
In oct. 1097. The main forces of the Crusaders came to the valley of the river. ORONT and began the siege of Antioch, K-paradis continued from 20 Oct. 1097 to June 3, 1098. The main problem of precipitated was the lack of food, partially solved due to supplies from Kilicia and Edessa, as well as through the ports of Seleucia and Laodicia, which were under the control of the Crusaders. The political situation in Syria was characterized by the confrontation between the Seljuk rulers of Damascus and Aleppo (Haleba), which led to the actual isolation of Emir of Antioch Yagi Syan during the siege. Sire weak attempts. The rulers to provide him with help were reflected by the Crusaders. 31 Dec. 1097 The troops of the Damascus Emir Dukak, nominated for the antioch, were broken down by the detachments of the Bohemund of the Tartan and Robert Flande, who committed a seal for the provincial. Feb 9 1098 Unified Army under the command of Bohemund dismissed the attack on the camp of the Crusaders, undertaken to Ridvan, Emir Aleppo, and long stopped attempts to rule the gossip territories to support Antioch. The situation has changed dramatically in May 1098, when a large army of Seljukov under the command of Atabek Mosul Kerboga was admitted to help Yagi Siana. Crusaders had to forcing the siege. On the night of June 3, as a result of the treason of controlled Zap. Gate of the city of Armenian Firuza Firuza Pala. Already the next day, the kerboga troops were besieged, however, the foundation of the Relikovian Provencal is a peter, despite the skeptical relationship of the EP. Ademara, consideredSveta Saints
, inspired the Crusaders. The relic was rendered to the army during the decisive battle with Kerboga on June 28, 1098, who ended with the flight of Seljuk.
A serious problem after the victory of the Crusaders over Turks was the question of the fate of the antioch. Claims Bohemund Tarnish to own the city by the law of conquest challenged Ramunda Toulouse, which demanded to convey the Antioch imp. Alexey I Comnin, in accordance with the oath brought in K-Field. The situation was complicated by the fact that the Byzantine emperor received from c. Stephen Bloua's false information about the full failure of the campaign and temporarily abandoned the support of the Crusaders (later gr. Stefan took part in the campaign of 1101; see: Lucitskaya. 1996). 1 Aug. 1098 died suddenly from the plague of the EP. Adamar, which aggravated the conflict. Under the conditions with the work of the compromise achieved between Raymund and Bohamund, the antioch was to get to Bohamund only if he continues the path to Jerusalem along with Dr. Crusaders. However, Bohamund remained in Antioch and founded the Antioch Principality there.
Sturm Jerusalem Crusaders. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Overseas Land" Wilhelm Tirsky. Ser. XIII century (Brit. Lib. Yates Thompson. 12. Fol. 40v)Sturm Jerusalem Crusaders. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Overseas Land" Wilhelm Tirsky. Ser. XIII century (Brit. Lib. Yates Thompson. 12. Fol. 40v)
C. Raimund Toulouse, leaving Antioch 13 Jan. 1099, together with Robert Norman and Tancred, in Fevr. The arch of the arch (near the owl. der. Minyar, Lebanon). Later, the troops of Gottfried Boulevard and Robert Flandine joined them. In the spring of 1099, the Embassy from Egypt arrived at the leaders of the Crustan Army with a report on the conquest of Jerusalem by Fatimidami. The Crusaders refused to offer the offer of Egyptians to share control over Palestine and, making a march along the coast of the Mediterranean m., July 7 began to siege of Jerusalem, the Fatimid ruler of whom managed to prepare the city for defense and expelled all the Christian population as unclear. The first assault, undertaken on June 13, ended in failure, but soon the Crusaders began to prepare a new attack using siege towers. Their construction was made possible thanks to the supply of forests, which were established using the Genoese Fleet. On July 13, the new assault on Jerusalem began, on July 15, he ended the victory of the Crusaders.
Fortress Krak de Chevalier (Syria). XII - XIII centuries.Fortress Krak de Chevalier (Syria). XII - XIII centuries.
Capturing Jerusalem, the Crusaders plundered the city; pepper The population (Muslims and Jews) was cut or sold into slavery. The ruler of Jerusalem was elected Gottfried Boulevard, who refused the title of the king and took the title of "Deck of the Mernel Coffin" (Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri). After the death of Gottfried in 1100, his brother Baldoon, who accepted the title of king asked the Jerusalem Prepoll. Raimund Toulouse founded state-in south. Syria - Tripoli county.
T. about., The 1st Crusade ended the victory of the Crusaders over 2 main opponents - Turks M. Asia and Egypt. Fatimides. As a result of the expedition, the 4 state-wa of the Crusaders (Jerusalem Kingdom, the Edessic County, the Anti-Choir Principality and Tripoli County) were created and the basis for the long-term presence of Europeans was laid. East. Hike also contributed to the partial restoration of the possessions of the Byzantine Empire in Zap. Parts M. Asia.
After graduating from the hike, most of his participants returned to Zap. Europe, and the new state-speaking of the Crusaders in the East began to experience an acute need for military force. The decision was the creation of spiritual and knight orders, which played an important role in all subsequent K. p. When joining the Order of the Knights brought any dining, chastity and obedience. This made it possible to maintain strict discipline during military campaigns, participation in the recently understood by members of these orders as a relig. service. OK. 1070 Museum from Amalfi built a stable house in Jerusalem for pilgrims, in which the worldly brothers served; During the 1st Crusade, they provided medical care to wounded knights. Afterwards. Hospital brothers began to participate in hostilities. In 1113, Pope Pope II (1099-1118) approved the Charter of the Order of Hospitallers (see Maltese Order), which was endowed with military functions. OK. 1119. The Knight from Champagne Gogo de Pain founded the Order of the Templar. The Order Residence was located in the former. Al-aksa mosques, K-paradium was considered the palace or the temple of Solomon. In 1129, the Charter of the Order was approved, in 1139, Bullah Omne Datum Optimum, Dad Innokenti II (1130-1143), endowed the Order of the Templars near the privileges. The most responsible tasks on St. Earth were entrusted to the spiritual and knightly orders: during the fighting, they, as a rule, were in the forefront and in the angroup of the crusader forces, and during the time of the truce with Muslims, they were trusted by the protection of key locks.
A. V. Staretsky
In the 1st floor. XII century between the states of the Crusaders and Musulm. The rulers of Syria and Palestine almost continuously went war, but for a long time none of the parties could have changed the situation in its favor. In addition, the unification of the state-in religious signs essentially existed only nominally. Their relationship was complicated by a large number of contradictions and direct military clashes, since each of the small states in the region fought both with Muslims and Christians for strengthening their position.
The fortress of the Crusaders (he underwent. T. N. Citadel Salah-Ad-Dina) near Sovrg Al-Haffa (Syria). Ser. X-XII centuries.The fortress of the Crusaders (he underwent. T. N. Citadel Salah-Ad-Dina) near Sovrg Al-Haffa (Syria). Ser. X-XII centuries.
In order to ensure the unhindered access of pilgrims, as well as the influx of goods from Europe, the rulers of the Jerusalem kingdom sought to conquer the Palestinian coast. Cor. Baldoon I organized several expeditions against Egypt and the Seljuk Sultanate, during the course of the reasons significantly expanded the borders of the state-based, capturing the ports of the Acre (ACCO), Tripoli, Beirut and Sidon (now Side, Lebanon). By 1115, the territory of the Jerusalem kingdom included the entire territory of Palestine; Cor. Baldwin I managed to put control of Wadi El Arab until the hall. Aqaba. In core Baldwin II (1118-1131) The kingdom has reached the greatest size, but already in Cor. Fulka Anzhuy (1131-1143) Muslim states began to be ahead of the Crusaders in what concerned political and military consolidation. In the 40s XII century The leader of Muslim forces in the region was the Atabekism of Mosul, which was ruled by Imad Ad-Dean Zengi (1127-1147). On Dec. 1144, after several years of persistent Natiska to the Edess County, Zengi captured Edessa. C. Edessa Josleni II (1131-1150) retained only a small part of his possessions to the west of Euphrates and did not have hope for their own defending all county. In the fall of 1146, he managed to briefly return to the Edessa, but because of Muslim's military superiority, he had to retreat again. With the fall of the Edess County, the overall position of the Crusaders in the East deteriorated; A direct threat to the fall of the Antioch Principality has been created. Nor the ruler of the Antioch Principality of Raimund from Poitiers, neither the rulers of the Jerusalem kingdom, could not change the situation with his mother Melosend Baldown III (1143-1162, from 1153 alone).
The initiator of the new crusade was made by Pope Evgeny III (1145-1153). Bully "Quantum Predcessores" from 1 Dec. 1145 He called on to collect new forces to protect the coffin of the Lord. The preaching of the 2nd Crusade was charged with Catholic. sv. Bernard Clervoscom; His mission had a huge success. Already in the winter of 1145/46, Franz. Cor. Louis VII (1137-1180) said that he would take a cross and personally head the crusade to the east. Dad Evgeny III and the adviser to King Abbot Sugarya, the abbot of Mont-Rya Saint-Denis, approved the intention of the monarch. In March 1146, at the meeting of large seniors, church prelates and knights in the lucky (Burgundy) Bernard Clervosky laid the cross on Louis VII. In con. 1146 at the Reichstag meeting in Shpayer about the desire to participate in the campaign in St. The Earth stated GEM. Cor. Conrad III (1138-1152). Saxon. Knights, supported by Danes and Poles, received from the Pope permission to start K. p. against vendors, i.e., the Slavic tribes of the Lutych and Pokorniyan, who lived in the bottoms of the river. Oder (now the territory of North. Germany), and in the summer of 1147 they pulled into a bloody, but small struggle with them. In the spring of 1147, the papal throne equated to K. p. Wars with Muslims on the Pyrenean P-Oves. Having reinforced Franz. and eng. Knights, in the summer of 1147. Cor. Castile Alfons VII (1126-1157) and Cor. Portugal Afonus I (1139-1185) began the offensive on the ownership of the Mauris and after a long siege captured Lisbon, Almeria, Tortos and a number of other major cities. Related to these victories and with preparing for a cross campaign of a surge of enthusiasm had one of the consequences of the growth of xenophobia: in Europe. The cities rode the wave of Heb. Pogromov (the largest occurred in Cologne, Mainz, Worms and Spaire).
Special attitude to K. p. It turned out at the court of Cor. Roeger II Sicilian (1130-1154). The ruler of Sicily originally considered the hike profitable for himself, as he could help strengthen the influence of the Sicilian kingdom in the crusaded states, with which the close relationship was maintained. At the same time, Sicily has long been drawn into confrontation with Byzantia for possessions to the south. Italy and the predominance in the Antioch principality. Roger II suggested French Cor. Louis VII is your fleet for transporting troops by sea, however, the leaders of the 2nd crusade have refused this idea, fearing to spoil relations with Byzantium, K-paradium owned by Kilicia, had common land borders with Antioch and Edessa and so on. Could put pressure on the course of the bud. Affairs in Syria. The refusal of the Crusaders became for the Horn II the reason to direct attack on Byzantium. Already in the summer of 1147, when the Crusaders moved to the Balkans, Sicilian squadron attacked Peloponnese and others. Record areas and south. coast Balkan P-Ova; Soon the Athens were looted by them. Active military actions between Sicily and Byzantium continued until 1149, when the Rahib Squaders were entered into a marble m. And approached the walls of the k-field.
GERM. Cor. Conrad III managed to quickly assemble the army of 20 thousand people. (including 2 thousand knights), fed to the beginning. The summer of 1147 went to the east of the land through Hungary and the Balkans. As part of the troops was the nephew of Conrad III Hertz. Shvabi Frederick I Barbarossa (emperor in 1155-1190). Conrad III accompanied the papal legate ep. Theodwin.
Under the banners of the cor. Louis VII in France gathered to 70 thousand crusaders. After a long fluctuations and negotiations with the Horror II of the transportation of troops along the sea, the French also decided to move on land after the Germans with an interval of 1 month. On the way, the supply of crusaders was due to the surrounding territories, and in fact knights robbed them.
Under a contract with a Venge. Cor. Gezoy II (1141-1162) The crusaded army had the opportunity to freely go through Hungary. First, in the Byzantine Empire, the Crusaders were perceived as an allied, but the promotion of numerous troops to the to the field was a danger to the capital. Byzantine imp. Manuel I Comnne (1143-1180), trying to reduce the threat, suggested a conducer III to cross in M. Asia not at the Bosphorus, but through a prol. Gellespont (Dardanelles), however, in St. 1147 Crusaders, entered into battle with the vistent. The adrianopol with detachments, forcefully broke into the surroundings of the K-Field. Realizing the danger of the presence of the walls of the city of the troops, ready to start the siege, the emperor ordered to smuggle the Crusaders to Asian. The shore as quickly as possible. At the same time, during the 2nd Crusade, Byzantium did not support the actions of the Crusaders in M. Asia, leaving them the opportunity to move to the east at their own risk. For imp. Manuel I, who was shortly before that concluded a peace treaty with the Rumsky Sultanat and supported constant diplomatic contacts with him, the crusaders were already a much more serious threat than Turkic Muslims to the Vost. The border of the empire.
In M. Asia Cor. Konrad III clearly underestimated the danger from Tuil-Seljuk. He decided not to wait for the FRIEND approach. Having reached Nikei, he divided his strength: the king and half of the troops went directly to the southeast (Iconium and Antioch), and Dr. part led by Oton, EP. Freizing, moved longer way - along the coast. 25 Oct. 1147 In the battle of Dorilee, Conrad III army was defeated by the army of Sultan Masuda I. With the remnants of the squad, Konrad III wounded in battle retreated to Nica. 16 Nov. 1147 army EP. Freyzingsky's Ottone was almost completely destroyed by Turks under the Lodicia of Frigian (now Denizli, Turkey). Otten with a few satellites reached Jerusalem by sea in Apr. 1148
The army of Louis VII was unhindered through Hungary and the vistent. Balkans. Relationship between Louis VII and Imp. Manuil I remained warm, and Franz. The king (His hike was accompanied by the wife of Alienor Aquitan) was solemnly accepted in the k-field. Having learned about the peaceful agreement of the Byzantines with Turks, some señoras offered to break the relationship with Manuel I and call the Fleet of Cor. Roeger II Sicilian for siege to-field, but Louis VII resolutely abandoned this plan. Franz. Crusaders swore to convey Byzantium all the land in M. Asia, which they will be able to conquer, although the visant. The emperor did not provide participants to the cross campaign of military support. In nov 1147 The army of Louis VII connected under Nicea with the remnants of Conrad III detachment and went further by EP. Ottone Freizing. GERM. The king, exhausted by injury, and probably shocked by his defeat, soon returned to the K-Paul, where imp. Manuel I personally cared for him. In the spring of 1148, Konrad III went to St. Earth on the ship. In Jan. 1148 The army of the Crusaders, by that time numerically superior to the army of Turkuli, broke through, although with big losses, through their barriers from Lodicia. Louis VII, with difficulty reaching the port of Attali, went to Antioch by sea. The rest of his army arrived there on land, strongly disorganized by the difficulties of the campaign; Many crusaders died of disease.
Arrival of the Crusaders to Damascus. Miniature from the composition of Sebastien Mamro "Overseas Hiking". 70s. XV century Art. J. Colombo (Paris. FR. 5594. FOL. 148V)Arrival of the Crusaders to Damascus. Miniature from the composition of Sebastien Mamro "Overseas Hiking". 70s. XV century Art. J. Colombo (Paris. FR. 5594. FOL. 148V)
March 19, 1148. Cor. Louis VII reached Antioch, where the KN was solemnly accepted. Ramundom, K-ry, hoped with the help of the Crusader's troops to organize an offensive on Aleppo (Haleb) and to win the Edess County. However, Franz. The king preferred to continue the way to Jerusalem. In Apr. In Jerusalem arrived a detachment of EP. Freyzingsky Ottone, Louis VII arrived and surviving representatives of Franco-Germ in the campaign. Nobility. All of them were warmly adopted. Balduin III; Afterwards. The Crusader's army actually became a tool to struggle the ruler of the Jerusalem kingdom for strengthening the borders of his state. June 24, 1148 in the Acre in the presence of Kings Baldwin III, Louis VII and Conrad III, the Council of Crusaders took place, where it was decided to begin an offensive on Damascus - the capital of a relatively small, but advantageous emirate, which Min Hein-Dean Unurred rules. The army of about 50 thousand crusaders gathered in Tiberia; July 23, it came to the surroundings of Damascus. For Emir Unura, this attack could not be unexpected. In several For months before that, he hurriedly began working on strengthening the capital of the Emirate, and also asked for help from Nur Ad-Dina Zengi and Safe Dina Gazi, Atabekam Aleppo and Mosul. When their troops, which began movement towards Damascus, reached Homs, about the approach of the Muslim army became known in the camp of the Crusaders. Thus, the siege of the city was torn. On July 28, under the threat of an attack, Muslim crusaders hurriedly retreated from the city and returned to their lands. This failure aggravated the contradictions that existed inside the coalition of the Crusaders, and made impossible further joint actions. Conrad III offered to settle Askalon and moved his troops there. But Herm's own forces. The king was extremely small, therefore, without having received support from other leaders of the crusade, Conrad III ceased the offensive and left St. Earth. Louis VII spent several more in Jerusalem. months and in Apr. 1149 went to the sea in France.
The 2nd crusade was perceived in Zap. Europe as a defeat. Especially hard failure was worried Bernard Clervosky. He sent Pope Yevgeny III by the apology "On Reflections" in 5 books in which he argued that the main reason for the failure of the expedition was the sins of the Crusaders. Many contemporaries of events believed that the results of the campaign influenced the intervention of the devil (Annales herbipolenses // MGH. SS. T. 16. P. 3; Gerhohi Praepositi ReichersBergensis Ex COMMENTARIO IN PSALMOS. XXXIX / ED. E. SACKUR // MGH. Lit. T. 3. P. 435-437).
In France, some expedition plans were discussed on some time. Bernard Clervosky was engaged in a preaching of a cross campaign, and his activity had a certain success. Cor. Louis VII leanned towards the support of this enterprise, but Roman Kuria opposed. For several Decades were held negotiations on the redemption of the Crusaders captured by the Turks. The 2nd crusade led to a change in relationship between France and the Byzantine Empire. Cor. Louis VII and his advisers accused imp. Manuel I in an agreement with the enemy. At the same time, the relationship of Conrad III and Manuel I, originally hostile, improved markedly. In the fall of 1148, Conrad III met with Manuel I in the Fessalonik and confirmed the Union with Byzantia. The Sicilian kingdom, which previously occupied a ambiguous position in relation to the participants of the campaign, turned out to be in isolation, since France, Germany and Byzantium were ready to speak against him.
The position of the state-in crusaders worsened. The siege of Damascus provoked the growth of military threat to the Jerusalem kingdom and led to the danger of the Muslim attack now spread to the entire length of his land border. Neither the Antioch Principality nor the christians remained under the rule of the Edess County did not receive real support from the crusaders. In 1150 g. Josleni II Edesssky was captured by Nur Ad-Din Zengi and was there until his death. In 1151, his possessions were completely captured by Muslims. The siege of Damascus is traditionally as evaluated as a serious misconception of the Crusaders, since the city did not imagine the dangers for the Jerusalem kingdom. Caught under the blow of the Crusaders, Emir Damascus was forced to seek the support of Zengids. Syria. As a result, Damascus was under the control of the ruler of Aleppo Nur Ad-Dina Zengi, and Syria became the center of Consolidation.
In the 80s. XII century Muslims managed to conquer most of the territory of the Jerusalem kingdom. By 1183, all ownership of Muslims in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, as well as in Zap. Arabia were united under the rule of Sultan Salah-Ad-Dina (1174-1193) from the Aiyubid dynasty, the Power of the C-podno was noticeably superior to the state-of crusaders with tons. military force and other resources. In addition, after the death of Cor. Baldhina IV (1185) The central government in the Jerusalem kingdom has significantly weakened. In the summer of 1186, after a year-old negotiations between the baronia and spiritual and knightly orders, Guy de Lusignan was built on the throne in Jerusalem (1186-1192), Sibilla's husband, sisters Baldwin IV. The robbery of Ceraka Rainald (Renault) de Santilon Musulm. The trading caravan in Transice, as a result of which, in addition to huge production in the hands of Rainald, was Salah-hell-Dina's sister, served as a reason to start the war with the Jerusalem kingdom.
Map of Jerusalem. Con. XII century (Den Haag. Koninklijke Bibl. 76 F 5. FOL. 1R)Map of Jerusalem. Con. XII century (Den Haag. Koninklijke Bibl. 76 F 5. FOL. 1R)
Starting a campaign in Galilee, on July 4, 1187, Salah-Ad-Dean almost completely destroyed the combined army of the Crusaders in the battle of Khattin (now the mountain range of Karny-Hitim is 6 km west of Tivira). Captured Cor. Gi de Lusignan, Master of the Order of the Templar Gerard de Ridfor, Rainald de Shatilon and others. Noble knights; Muslims also captured the shrine accompanying the crusaded army, - the life-giving tree of the Cross of the Lord. Soon the troops of Salah-hell-Dina captured acre and several. Dr. Fortresses, and 2 Oct. 1187 After the short siege, Muslims surrendered to Jerusalem. By the end of the year, the Crusaders owned only a narrow strip of the coast with large fortresses in Antioch, Tripoli and dash; In 1188, Salah-hell-Dean tried, although unsuccessful, capture Antioch.
According to legend, having received the sad news from Palestine, 20 Oct. 1187 died Pope Urban III. Despite the fact that the information on the capture of Jerusalem could not reach Rome so quickly, in the consciousness of Europeans of that time, the death of Pope was associated with this event. The successor of Urban III Pope Gregory VIII Bullah "Audita Tremendi" (29 Oct. 1187) announced the fall of Jerusalem to the punishment for the sin of Christians and called for a new cross campaign. The quick response of Bulla found in holy. Roman Empire; imp. Frederick I Barbarossa had close allied relationships with a papal throne. The royal courts of France and England also supported the campaign, but the preparation for an expensive and complex expedition to the East was delayed for 3 years due to a long military confrontation between these countries.
Warriors of Salah-Ad-Din are ruined by St. Earth. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Overseas Land" Wilhelm Tirsky. Ser. XIII century (Brit. Lib. Yates Thompson. 12. Fol. 161)Warriors of Salah-Ad-Din are ruined by St. Earth. Miniature from the "History of Acts in the Overseas Land" Wilhelm Tirsky. Ser. XIII century (Brit. Lib. Yates Thompson. 12. Fol. 161)
The collection of "royal" expeditions demanded a long time, but, as it turned out later, the leading of the war in Palestine, the large army, headed by monarchs, had only limited influence. In May 1188, Salah-hell-Dean liberated Cor. Gi de Lusignan, thereby hoping to ignite the cross-worker among the knights, many of the to-pieces saw in the King of the main culprit of the catastrophe. Senor TiraKonrad Monferratsky
I refused to let him in the city and recognize the King of Jerusalem until Europe arrive. Monarchs to jointly decide who should occupy the throne in Jerusalem. Gi de Lusignan and his supporters had to break the camp in the vicinity of Tira. In con. Spring 1188 in a shooter, which became the military base of the 3rd crusade, arrived reinforcement from 200 knights sent to Cor. Sicily Wilhelm II (1166-1189). In 1189, the detachments of several arrived by the sea. French senors and Italian prelates, including Pisansky Archiep. Ubaldo Lanfranki, the fleet of which was 52 vehicles. It is these relatively small forces that, at the head of the rod, the Giana de Lusignan rose, allowed the Crusaders to stabilize the situation and begin to restrain the lost territories. Konrad Monferratsky soon also joined the army of Gi de Lusignan.
28 Aug. 1189 with his newly organized army (approx. 7 thousand people. Infantry and 400 knights) and with the support of the Danesian and Frizdi escords and Frisi de Lusignan began the siege of acres: he was mastered by her could fix it on the coast of North. Palestine and get direct access to Galileo and Jerusalem. The first attempt to capture the city was unsuccessful. However, Salah-Ad-Dean, 15 Saint. Having tried to destroy the siege camp of the Crusaders under the acre, also failed. A long-term positional confrontation began: Crusaders blocked the city from the sea and held their camp on the shore north of acres. Muslims supported part of land communications with the city and built siege positions around the camp of the Crusaders from the south and east. In a large collision of 4 Oct. Both sides suffered large losses, but mostly retained the previous positions. By the end of the autumn, the Crusaders managed to fully block the acre from sushi. A double line of blockade was formed around the city, because the Crusader from Sushi was deposited by the army of Salah-hell-Dina. In con. 1189 Egypt. The fleet pushed the crusaders squadron and put an end to the blockade of acres from the sea.
The living conditions of warriors in siege camps were extremely difficult: the lack of food and drinking water, illness. The combat capability of the crusader army was maintained by small detachments arriving from Europe. On May 6, 1190, the Crusaders tried to storm the acre with the help of siege guns built from materials, which were delivered from Tira by sea by Conrad Montferrat. Sturm completed failure, siege cars are lost. On May 20-26, Muslims held field strengthening of the Crusaders under constant fire and tried to capture them, but also unsuccessfully. On July 25, the Crusaders were broken after trying to attack Muslims. In the beginning. Oct. 1190 G. The squad arrived at Acre. knights under the command of Hertz. Friedrich Vi Schwabsky, a small part of the Fritrich Barbarossa troops, however, this did not lead to changes in position.
To con. 1190. The situation for the Crusaders worsened significantly. From the epidemic in the camp died Cor. Sibylla, and with her death Gi de Lusignan lost legitimate rights to the throne of the Jerusalem kingdom. It strengthened the split among the knights. Gi de Lusignan sought to retain the status of the king, but most knights did not recognize him. Conrad Monferratsky claimed to the throne, I was married to Isabelle, my daughter. Amorie (Almarica) of the Jerusalem and Summary Sister Cor. Sibilla. The solution to the question of inheritance of the throne was postponed until the end of military operations. By winter, 1190/91, Muslims managed to interrupt the land communications of the Crusaders who stood with a camp under the acre, with a tire; The supply of troops suffering from the epidemic and hunger was extremely rare. In Jan. 1191 Hertz died in the camp. Friedrich Swabsky; The victims of the epidemic became MN. Representatives of Europe. Nature and clearing, including Lat. Jerusalem Patriarch Irakli.
However, 31 dec. 1190 G. The Crusaders held another assault of acres; They managed to destroy part of the urban walls, although forces for the destruction of Muslim. The garrison was not enough. 13 Feb. 1191 Muslims broke through to acre through the siege camp of the Crusaders and changed the garrison exhausted siege, thereby minimizing the latest progress of Christians. In March, the Crusaders managed to resume the sea supply of the siege camp and prevent his death. Instead of Gi de Lusignan, the army headed the newly arrived with the fresh detachments of Hertz. Leopold V Austrian. However, the positionary war, the K-Rui Crusaders led for almost 2 years and K-paradium cost both sides of huge victims, did not lead to K.L. Results.
GERM. imp. Friedrich I Barbarossa brought the crusaded vow at the ceremony in the Cathedral in Mainz on March 27, 1188 in May 1189, he moved to the east at the head of the army of 5 thousand knights and 200 thousand dr. Warriors. In the composition of the army was Weng. KN contingent. Geza, Brother Weng. Cor. Bella III. Contrary to the sad experience of the 2nd Crusade, the army again moved on land - through the possessions of Hungary, Byzantium and the Rumsky Sultanate, which inevitably led to conflicts with the local population, and the rulers in this region considered the army of the Crusaders as a terrible threat and had no help. Visant. imp. Isaac II Angel (1185-1195, 1203-1204), who retained friendly relations with Salah-hell-din, but who had no opportunity to stop the Army of Friedrich Barbarossa by force, allowed the crusaded army to go through the lands of the Byzantine Empire. On the path, the Crusaders occupied and robbed the city: the heart (now Sofia), Philippopol (now Plovdiv), Adrianopol (now Edirne); Those who tried to resist them. At the end of summer and in the fall of 1189, the promotion of the Crusaders in the Balkans was actually turned into a military confrontation by the Byzantines; At the same time, negotiations on the conditions of crossing the Army of Friedrich Barbarossa in M. Asia. Only in Feb. 1190. The agreement was concluded, the crossing took place, and the Crusaders collided with the new enemy in the face of the Rumsky Sultanate. The slow promotion of Friedrich Barbarossa detachments gave the opportunity to Sultan Klych-Arslan II (1156-1192) to prepare for war and conclude an alliance with Salah-hell-din. Without the ability to hold back the numerous army of the Crusaders, Seljuki agreed to miss it, but soon they were forced to resist the crusaders who committed robbery. Promotion of it. The army again turned into a military campaign.
Imp. Frederick I Barbarossa in the 3rd crusade. Miniature from Petra's poem from Eboli "Book in the emperor praise." 1196 (BERN. BURGERBIBL. 120 II. FOL. 143)Imp. Frederick I Barbarossa in the 3rd crusade. Miniature from Petra's poem from Eboli "Book in the emperor praise." 1196 (BERN. BURGERBIBL. 120 II. FOL. 143)
In May 1190, Friedrich Barbarossa reached the capital of Sultanat G. Iconium (now Konya) and under the walls of the city broke the main forces of the Seljuk. Iconium was captured and looted by the Crusaders, Sultan and his courtyard fled to the vest. The countries of the country, organized resistance to the Crusaders ceased. After the care of the Forus, Friedrich Barbaros Sultanate quickly restored its capital.
The promotion of the Crusaders was interrupted on June 10, 1190, when during the transition through the Ridge Tavr Imp. Friedrich I Barbarossa fell off the cliff and drowned in the Calicadn mountain river (Salief; now Goszu). The death of Friedrich deprived the hike of meaning for the majority of the Knights participating in it: they were forced to take care of the protection of their political rights on the elections of the new emperor who had upcoming in Germany. Most of the troops returned to Europe. The campaign continued only 5 thousand crusaders; The Son of the emperor hertz was keen. Friedrich Swabsky and Conrad Monferratsky. Soon this detachment reached Antioch. The remains of Friedrich Barbaras were buried in a dash. A few detachment of German knights, who came to Syria and Palestine, could no longer affect the further course of the war.
Heir to English. The throne Richard I The Lion Heart (King of England in 1189-1199) took a cross in the fall of 1187. However, the organization of the 3rd Cross Walk in England and in France prevented the war between the countries for the ownership of Dukes Normandy, Anjou, Turny, Men, and others. In Nach . 1188 An English meeting took place. Cor. Heinrich II (1154-1189) and Franz. Cor. Philip II August (1180-1223), on the swarm of the monarchs agreed to conclude a truce and contribute to the crusader movement. In England and in France, a special tax was introduced for the upcoming expedition (t. N. Saladinova Tithina). Nevertheless, in the summer of the same year, the war resumed.
Markab Fortress Order of Hospitallers near Sovr. Banias (Syria). XII.Markab Fortress Order of Hospitallers near Sovr. Banias (Syria). XII.
At the same time, Richard brought ommage Philippi II and openly opposed his father, defending the interests of France and seeking a peace agreement for the participation of both kingdoms in a cross campaign. July 6, 1189, shortly after imprisonment, Cor. Heinrich II died in the castle of Shinon (France). Richard I Lion's heart took English. The throne began to form the army of the Crusaders and collect funds for a joint campaign with the French. May 18, 1190 English. The maritime expedition of the Crusaders led by Richard De Kammille and Rober de Sable went from Dartmouth along the Zap. Europe coast to connect with Franz. Crusaders in Marseille. On the way to St. Earth, the English Crusaders took part in the war against Muslims on the side of Portuga. Cor. Santa I. Cor. Richard I, spending half a year in England, returned to France; On July 4, 1190, an agreement was reached at the negotiations in luck on the meeting of crusader armies in Sicily. Without waiting for the arrival in Marseille English. Maritime expedition, Richard Lion's heart left the port 7 Aug. and 23 hundred. landed on Sicily. English The fleet was ahead of him and arrived at the shores of the island already 14 seconds. Richard I immediately began military actions against the Sicilian Cor. Tancreda (1189-1194), which was accused of imprisonment of John the English, sisters of Richard Lion's heart and the widow of the Sicilian Cor. Wilhelm II. 4 Oct. The British captured Messin, freeing the cor. John.
Franz. Crusaders led by Cor. Filippie II, Augustus, went by the sea from Genoa and arrived at Sicily after hostilities. Both army spent in Sicily winter. March 30, 1191 Franz. The expedition went to the east, landed in a dash and 20 Apr. Joined the camp of the Crusaders under the acre. English The fleet consisting of 180 sailing ships (oils) and 39 Galya left Sicily on Apr 10. And the coast of Cyprus got into the storm, in K-Rom died several. Ships from a treasury expedition. Part of these treasures was thrown ashore and became the trophy of the vistent. Despota Cyprus Isaac Duffs Comnin. Richard detachments The lion's heart smashed the camp under Limasol. May 6 English The king met with Isaac Komnin and he agreed to return the crusaders of the treasury and send 500 of his warriors with them to Palestine. Soon Richard, the lion's heart visited in the camp liberated from the captivity Jerusalem Cor. Gi de Lusignan; Here Richard celebrated the wedding with the Castilian Princess Berengaria Navarre. Long stay of the British in Cyprus was the cause of dissatisfaction with Greek. The authorities and gap of Richard with Isaac Comnin. The British captured Limassol, Isaac Komnin was lowered and in the jackets were delivered to Tripoli, where he was transferred to hospiters. Richard's army Lion's heart left Cyprus only June 5, 1191
Active action under the acre began with the arrival of Franz. Cor. Philip II August (Apr 20 1191) and English. Cor. Richard I Lion Heart (June 8, 1191). Konrad Monferratsky left the camp and left for a shooting school, since Richard I supported the rights of Guy de Lusignan on the throne of the Jerusalem kingdom. Franz. Crusaders, together with Sailors of the Genoese squadron, Simone Doria began the construction of new, more powerful siege guns. Arriving at the camp under the acre, Richard Lion's heart began negotiations with Salah-hell-din. Exciting delegations, the parties agreed to hold a general meeting with the participation of the English. And Franz. Monarchs, but on the appointed day and Philip II August, and Richard I, the lion's heart turned out to be sick, and negotiations did not take place. New chanets gradually destroyed the walls of acres, despite the fact that the siege camp of the Crusaders was still under constant attacks of Salah-Ad-Din. On July 4, the dilapidated city announced his readiness to surrender, but Richard I rejected the capitulation conditions. July 12, after a series of reciprocal shelling and attacks, new negotiations held Konrad Monferrat's crusaders returned to the camp; The terms of delivery acres were adopted by all parties, including Salah-Ad-Din. The acra garison surrendered to Christians and was captive.
Kings Philipps II August and Richard I Lion heart take the surrender of acres. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France." 70s. XIV. (Paris. Fr. 2813. FOL. 238V)Kings Philipps II August and Richard I Lion heart take the surrender of acres. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France." 70s. XIV. (Paris. Fr. 2813. FOL. 238V)
Soon after the capture of Acra Hertz. Leopold Austrian, to-ry, as a representative of GEM. The king, demanded for himself an equal position with the monarchs, left the camp of the Crusaders. Suffering from dysentery of the cor. Philip II August was unable to actively participate in recent events. In addition, on June 1, Count Flanders Philipp, an influential ally of Franz died in the camp. king; His death could threaten Philip II loss of control over the counties of Blois and Vermandua and the exacerbation of the political situation in France. On July 31, 1191, Filipp II August left St. Earth and returned to France, leaving 10 thousand warriors in the army headed by Hertz. Hugo III Burgundy.
The conditions for passing acra assumed the exchange of prisoners on both sides. 11 Aug. Salah-hell-Dean offered Richard a lion's heart part of the redemption for the defenders of the city, but the English king refused, because among the liberated crusaders was not several. Noble seeds previously captured by Muslims. Salah-hell-Dean agreed to give them after a while, but 20 Aug. The king, deciding that it is impossible to wait for the exchange, ordered to cut off the head of 2700 Muslim prisoners from the Acra garrison. In response, Salah-Ad-Dean executed all those who were captured by Christians. The possibility of a peaceful agreement was missed.
Fortress Colossi (Cyprus). Nach XIII centuryFortress Colossi (Cyprus). Nach XIII century
Relying on the captured acre, Richard Lion's heart advanced on south, towards Jaffa. 7 Saint. 1191 near Arsuf (Apollonia; 15 km north of the Sovar. Tel Aviv) his army was attacked by the main forces of Salah-hell-Dina. In the battle, the Crusaders kept the attack of Muslims, and then turned them into flight. The victory raised the moral spirit of the knights and provided them with a successful seizure of Jaffa. New negotiations took place here. Brother Salah-Ad-Dina Al-Malik Al-Adil's Safe Din (Safadin) was arrived in Jaffa and suggested Richard the lion's heart to conclude the world, the order of Al-Adil's marriage with the sister of Richard John. Refusing to these conditions, the English king continued the offensive and has moved to the south to Askalon during the autumn. In con. Dec. 1191 The Crusaders were located in the Beit Nyuba area, located west of Jerusalem, and threatened to capture the city. Nevertheless, the forces for the siege in the Crusaders were not enough.
In winter, 1191/92 Konrad Monferratsky began separate negotiations with Salah-hell-din, trying to reduce the successes of Richard Lion's heart and supported by the English. King Gi de Lusignan. However, in Apr. 1192 by the voting of the Jerusalem kingdom of Conrad Monferrat's almost unanimously elected the king. 28 Apr., 2 weeks after the election, he was killed in Asassine's dash; Who exactly sent the murderers, could not be established. A week later. Isabella married gr. Heinrich Champagne, who was recognized as the new King of Jerusalem. In the same year, Giana de Lusignan bought Cyprus from the Templars, by now shortly before it received it from the English. king; The island was under the rule of the Lusignan dynasty until 1489 (see Art. Cyprus).
In May 1192, the Crusaders again approached Jerusalem, but the siege of the city was not begun because of the increased disagreements between the leaders of the crusade. Richard The Lion's Heart urged to move to the south and attack Egypt, to strike on the kernel of the possessions of Salah-hell-Dina, as a result of which he himself will be forced to leave Jerusalem. C. Gogo Burgundy, who commanded Franz detachments. Crusaders, on the contrary, considered it necessary first of all to capture Jerusalem. English The king demonstratively refused to command, and the crusaders retreated to the coast. In July 1192, Salah-hell-Dean suddenly attacked Jaffa and captured the whole city except the citadel. To endure the defeat of the garrison, Sultan prevented the rebellion in his own troops. Richard The lion's heart suddenly arrived there on ships from 2 thousand soldiers and freed Jaffa; Most of the captives captured in the city was saved. 8 Aug., having tightening the main forces, Salah-hell-Dean again tried to master Jaffa and smash the crusaders, but in the winning battle the victory was again left for the English. Monarch. 2 hundred. 1192 Both sides, exhausted by a stubborn opposition, agreed to conclude a peace treaty. The sea coast from Tira to Jaffa remained at the Crusaders, and the entire continental part of Palestine finally passed under the power of Muslims. Christian pilgrims received the right to visit Jerusalem and other places on St. Earth. 9 Oct. 1192 English. Cor. Richard I left Palestine lion's heart.
The 3rd crusade prevented Salah-hell-Dina to completely capture the possessions of Christians in Palestine and Syria. The cost of the huge efforts of the Crusaders managed to defend part of the lands and stop the seemingly inevitable decay of Christ. State-in in St. Earth. At the same time, long-term military actions have undermined the strength of both Muslims and some Christ. State-c. After the death of Salah-Ad-Dina (1193), his power again broke up into a number of small and weak ownership in militarily. The death of imp. Friedrich I Barbarossa was severe loss for holy. Roman Empire. Long stay of Richard I Lion's heart in Palestine hardly reflected on the fate of his kingdom. Captured along the way home captured King was able to return to England only in 1194, when a civil struggle was in the country.
I. N. Popov
The 3rd crusade of the campaign nevertheless did not put an end to the attempts of Western Europe. Ruler to return Jerusalem to the power of Christians. In 1195 imp. Heinrich VI organized a new campaign, which was headed by Marshal Sagra. Roman Empire Heinrich Background Calden and Chancellor Konrad Background Cverfurt. In the autumn of 1197, the Crusaders reached St. Earth and returned to the control of the Jerusalem kingdom of Beirut and Sidon, but the sudden death of the emperor and the dynastic crisis began after it forced the crusaders to interrupt the hike and return to Europe. Pope Innokenty III Bullah "Post Miserabile" from 15 Aug. 1198 announced the beginning of a new crusade in March 1199 g.; A fixed deadline for the execution of the Crusadic Value (2 years) was established and the provision of indulgence with those who provided financial support for the expedition was envisaged. Dad appointed legates responsible for organizing a cross campaign, they became Cardinals Soffhredo and Peter Kapuan, among the tasks of the reasons were the resolution of meals. Conflicts to provide crusader forces with the necessary resources. 31 Dec. 1199, after the implementation of these measures did not lead to noticeable consequences, Innocent III Bullah "Graves Orientalis Terrae" reduced the deadline for the execution of the crusaded vow to 1 year. A new system of financing a military expedition was also introduced, which assumed the transfer of 1/40 of church income for the needs of the Crusaders. The famous French preacher Fulc from Nyuyi was brought to the preaching of the crusade, the famous Military contingent was able to assemble. Crusading vow brought gr. Tibo III champagne, which has become an informal leader of the expedition, gr. Louis I Bloua, gr. Baldoon IX FLANDERSKY, GR. Simon de Montfort, gr. Hugo IV de Saint-Paul, as well as Marshal Champagan Joffroa de Villarduen. An intention to take part in the campaign also declared Weng. Cor. Imre (1196-1204).
Dozh Enrico Dandolo. OK. 1600. Art. D. Tintoretto (Hall of the Big Council in the National Palace, Venice)Dozh Enrico Dandolo. OK. 1600. Art. D. Tintoretto (Hall of the Big Council in the National Palace, Venice)
The goal of the cross campaign was at first Jerusalem, but in the fall of 1198, the news came to Rome that July 1, 1198 between the ruler of the Jerusalem kingdom and Sultan Al-Adil I was concluded a peace treaty for a period of 5 years and 8 months; The use of the kingdom resources of the Kingdom to take Jerusalem was impossible. The new target of the campaign was Alexandria, which was supposed to become an outpost for the further conquest of Egypt. In addition, Alexandria lay on one of the main trading paths connecting the West and East, which made it conquering especially attractive to the Venetian Republic. In Feb. 1201 Venice entered into an agreement on the construction of a fleet for delivery of 33.5 thousand crusaders in exchange for the payment of 85 thousand Cologne grades. However, the mobilization and financial capabilities of the participants and managers of the campaign were clearly overvalued. The situation was aggravated after sustainable death. Tibo Champagne (May 1201). The management of the expedition was transferred to Marquis Boniface Montferrat.
By the summer of 1202 in Venice arrived approx. 12 thousand Crusaders, which were able to collect only 51 thousand stamps to pay for venetians. The resulting conflict led to the actual blockade of the Crusaders, which remained without food on the O-ve Lido. In the midst of the conflict, the Venetian warmin Enrico Dandolo made a deal with leaders of troops, under the terms of the Krobrospar received a deferment in the payment of debt in exchange for providing assistance to Venice in the fight against the Hungarian Kingdom for control over Gar (now Zadar, Croatia). Dandolo with a large group of Venetians officially joined the campaign and brought a crusaded vow. This transaction could not be approved by Pope Innocent III, since Zara was Christ. The city and was under the papal patronage as the ownership of the Weng. The king, also bringing the crusading vow. Papal League Peter Kapuang had to leave the army of the Crusaders and return to Rome. 10-11 Nov. 1202 The fleet, consisting of 200 ships, began the siege of the burden. At this time, the Crusaders received the message of Pope Innokentia III with a ban to attack the city under the threat of church rally. Part of the army under the command of Simon de Montfor and the Cistercian Abbot GI from Mon-Rya de Senna refused to participate in hostilities. However, the main forces of the crusaders under pressure Dandolo continued the siege. 24 Nov. 1202 The garrison burned Capitulized, which resulted over the church of all participants of the siege. The embassy sent by the Crusaders in Rome has achieved from Pope of removing excommunication from all the Crusaders, with the exception of Venetian. Despite the fact that Christians were forbidden to communicate with me, Innokenti III, allowed the participants to continue the campaign together with the Venetians. But the Crusaders were strictly forbidden to attack Christians without the sanction of the papal throne.
During the wintering in the dawn, the messengers of Philip Schwabsky, Cor. Germany (1198-1208), which supported the complaints of the vistent. Tsarevich Alexei's throne (see Alexey IV Angel), Son Imp. Isaac II Angel, overthrown by his cousin Alexei III Angel (1195-1203). In 1201, Tsarevich Alexey fled to Europe, where he was looking for support for the Pope Innocent III and Cor. Philip Schwabsky, who was married to the sister Alexei Irina. Dad refused to provide him with help, and the king sent him to his vassal Boniface Montferrat, who headed the crusade. In St. 1202 Alexey entered into negotiations with leaders of the Crusaders, and on Dec. He referred to him through the representatives of Philip Schwab's proposal for the transaction: in the case of an addendum to the throne, he pledged to subordinate to the Papal throne to the K-Polish Patriarchate, to pay 200 thousand stamps to the Crusaders, supply them to the provincial during the year, if necessary, to allocate 10 thousand people if necessary. To participate in the crusade, as well as to support a contingent of 500 warriors in St. Earth. A smaller, but more influential group of Crusaders, who consisted of Boniface Montferrat, Dandolo, Bloughinsky Flanders, Louis of Bloua and Gogo de Saint-Paul, joined the separatic negotiations with Alexey and concluded a deal with him. This decision forced Simon de Montfor and a number of other crusaders to leave the army location and go to Palestine by land. In order to avoid the further decay of the troops, the crusaders promised that their stay to the field would not last more than a month.
In historiography, there were 2 main versions, why during the 4th Crusade Higher Route The Crusader's Army route dismissed towards the k-field. A number of researchers adhere to the "conspiracy theories", according to which the individual leaders of the campaign entered into a secret conspiracy with Tsarevich Alexey in order to capture the k-field before the expedition. Among the possible organizers of the conspiracy were called Dandolo ( Runciman. 1954. Vol. 3; Nicol. 1988), Boniface Monferrat and Philip Schwabsky ( Rian. 1875), as well as Pope Innokentia III ( Fences. 1960). In favor of this hypothesis, the chronology of the movement of Tsarevich Alexei in Europe and the reports of some sources ("History" of Nikita Honiata, Chronicle of Ernul and Bernard Treaschade, "Acts of Innocent III"; an important source is also a "tale of taking Tsargrad Friesha", which has survived in Novgorod I chronicles (XIII century) and others. Later Rus. Chronicles (see: Lucitskaya. 2006)). Other tons. - "Theory of randomness", according to which the deviation of the cross campaign to the to-field was the result of non-other events ( Queller, Madden. 1997). This hypothesis also relies on the information contained in a number of narrative sources ("conquest of Constantinople" Joffroa de Villarduen, "Constantinople's conquest" Robert de Clari). Despite disagreements, most of the researchers agree that the attack of the Crusaders on the K-Paul was the result of a long hostility between Vizantia and Western Europe. Gos-you.
The Fleet of Crusaders at the walls of Constantinople. Miniature from Manuscripts: Mamerot S. Les Passages Fais Oultre Mer ... Contre Les Turcqs et autres sarrazins. 1474-1475 (Paris. FR. 5594. FOL. 217)The Fleet of Crusaders at the walls of Constantinople. Miniature from Manuscripts: Mamerot S. Les Passages Fais Oultre Mer ... Contre Les Turcqs et autres sarrazins. 1474-1475 (Paris. FR. 5594. FOL. 217)
20 Apr. 1203, the army of the Crusaders left the Zara and in May reached the Corfu (Kerkira), where Tsarevich Alexey joined it. On June 24, the Crusaders landed on the Bosphorus and began a siege to-field, K-paradis lasted until July 17. At the 1st stage of the siege, the Crusaders focused the main forces on the sowing. side of the city. On July 6, they captured the Galata Tower, which allowed the Venetian fleet to penetrate the Golden Horn bay. On July 17, he began the master of storming to-field from the sea and sushi. First, the Venetians managed to capture a quarter of the city wall, but the successful actions of the Byzantines were forced them to retreat them. On the night of July 18, the city ran from the city. Alexey III Angel. On the visant. The throne again joined Isaac II Angel, Alexey Tsarevich was crowned as a co-coster. Imp. Isaac II accepted the terms of the transaction concluded with the Crusaders: the 1st part of the promised amount was paid, which made it possible to cover the debt to Venetians, but the implementation of other obligations was threatened due to lack of funds in the vistent. execution. In addition, anti-colors increased in the capital. mood. Dec 1 between imp. Alexey IV and the Crusaders occurred conflict, which led to victims on both sides. Byzantines twice unsuccessfully tried to burn the Venetian fleet. 25 Jan. 1204 In the k-field there was a coup, during the progenic IIAAAK II and Alexey IV, Angel was overthrown (I saw. Isaac died of illness, Alexey was strangled), and the emperor becameAlexey V Duka.
In the current situation, the crusaders decided to start the assault to the field. By agreement, a concluded in March 1204, Dandolo, Bonifacim Monferratsky, Blouthin Flanders, Louis Bloian and Gogo de Saint-Paul, 3/4 of the property captured in the city should have proceeded to the Venetians. After the conquest of the K-Field, the establishment of the Board was envisaged, K-paradium was supposed to elect a new emperor, and the creation of a commission that distributed Lena between the participants of the expedition (the Board and Commission included 6 representatives from the Venice Republic and the Crusaders' troops). The new emperor gained 1/4 of all the land of Byzantium, the remaining land shared equally between the Venetians and the Crusaders. The party, whose defense lost in the elections, received the right to appoint clerics of the church of St. Sofia, was elected from their number Patriarch K-Polish. The emperor was supposed to confirm all trade privileges received by the Venetians, as well as to guarantee non-avoidance for the Venice Republic. The main applicant for the throne of the emperor was Monferrat's Bonifacea, but most of the electors supported the candidacy of Baldina I. 9 Apr. 1204 The Crusaders began the 2nd siege to the field. Initially, the attempt of the Venetians to take the walls of the wall from the sea, which was controlled by them during the 1st siege (1203), was not crowned with success, but the use of siege machines crusaders led to the fact that the 13 Apr. 1204 K-Pal. Crusaders plundered the city (for details, see Art. Constantinople).
On May 16, the Coronation of Baldhini I was held, which marked the very existence of the Latin Empire. Dad Innokenti III was forced to recognize the capture of the k-field and the creation of a new state. Poppan Legates, Saffhredo and Peter Kapuan, freed the Crusaders from the obligation to make a campaign to Alexandria and equated the capture of the k-field to the execution of the Crusading Victure. The Venetians were liberated from church excision, which were imposed on them for the capture of the burdens.
The capture of the K-Field participants of the 4th Crusade led to the disintegration of Byzantium. On the site of a single empire, several states arose - the Nicene Empire, the Trapezund Empire, the Epirus Principality, as well as the State Latin Romania: Latin Empire (1204-1261), the Fassalonik Kingdom (1209-1224), Ahasey (Maizo) Principality (1205 -1432), Athenian Señoria (1205-1456, from 1260 - Duchy) (For more information, see: Carp. 2000). The 4th crusade contributed to the final split Vost. and zap. Churches. The legitimization of the campaign of Pope led to a serious revaluation of the entire crusader movement, who worried a deep crisis. K.p. increasingly began to be used in the political interests of Roman pontiffs and Europe. rulers. The only force for which the fall of the k-field was beneficial in the long run, Venice was temporarily received practically unlimited control over trade in Vost. Mediterranean.
Despite the seizure of the K-Field during the 4th Crusade, Pope Innokenty III did not refuse plans to organize an expedition to liberate Jerusalem. Questions related to the preparation for a new campaign to the East were affected by dad in Bullah, published in 1213-1216, including in the course of the IV of the Lateran Cathedral. The date of the beginning of the 5th crusade (June 1, 1217) was determined. Sumptal began to collect. The ports of Brindisi and Messina. The financing of the expedition was provided by the introduction of a 3-year tax in the amount of 10% on the income of Roman curia and 5% for the means obtained by the parishes. Trade Christians with Muslims was prohibited at risk of excommunication from the church. As in the time of the 4th crusade, those who financed campaigns were equated to the Crusaders and received an indulgence. The preaching of the campaign was instructed by the canonics of the Cathedral of Paderbore Thomas Olivera (Bishop Paderbore in 1223-1225, Cardinal-Bishop Sabina in 1225-1227).
Siege Damietta in 1249. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France". 70s. XIV. (Paris. FR. 2813. FOL. 281)Siege Damietta in 1249. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France". 70s. XIV. (Paris. FR. 2813. FOL. 281)
Papal Legal responsible for the expedition was assigned a card. Robert Kerzon. After the death of Innocent III, his successor continued to prepare for the campaignHoroni III.
(1216-1227). On the call of the dad to take the cross responded by English. Cor. John landless (1199-1216), GERM. Cor.Frederick II Staufen
(1212-1250; Emperor in 1220-1250), Weng. Cor. Andrasha II (1205-1235), Hertz. Leopold VI Austrian (1198-1230) and c. Wilhelm I Dutch (1203-1222). However, John landless died before the start of the campaign, and Friedrich II remained in Europe, having struggled for imp. Title S.Otten IV.
In the spring of 1217, the crusaders were performed on the campaign. Andrish II and Leopold Austrian. In aw They achieved a sleeve (now split, Croatia), and then crossed themselves by sea into acre, where the troops of Bohemund IV, KN joined them. Antioch (1201-1216, 1219-1233), and Cor. Cyprus Gogo I Lusignan (1205-1218). In November-dec. 1217 Crusaders committed 3 ribs against Muslims. Palestine. So without waiting for reinforcements, Andras II, Hugo I and Bohamund Antiochian left Palestine. The crusaders remaining on St. Earth began to strengthen fortresses at the borders of the Jerusalem kingdom. In the spring of 1218 in Palestine, the army arrived from the Frisia and the Rhine Region. Under the command of Wilhelm I and Thomas Oliver. At the military council held in Akre, it was decided to appoint the head of the Military campaign of John Bionnia (Jean de Brienna), the regent of the Jerusalem kingdom, sending the army of the Crusaders to conquer the largest Egypt. Port Damietta (now Dumey). In May, the Crusaders landed on Zap. Nile and began the siege of Damietta (May 29, 1218 - 5 Nov. 1219). The left bank of the Nile, the Damietta was located on the rum, was occupied by the army of Al-Kamil, the son of Sultan al-Adil. The main purpose of the crusader army at the 1st stage of the siege was the chain tower located on the island in the middle of the Nile. The chain, stretched between the tower and the city, blocked the way ships of the Crusaders. The first attempts to take the tower of the chain storm did not succeed, but the situation has changed after the construction of a floating siege tower on the project of Thomas Oliver. 24 Aug. The tower of the chain fell under the onslaught of the Crusaders. Sultan al-Adil died soon, and the power passed to al-Kamil. The further development of the events was noted by the struggle for leadership over the crusader army between John Bionnia and the Papal League of the Card. Pelagiam who arrived in St. 1218 g. With English, Franz. and ital. detachments. The positional struggle of the Crusaders and the Egyptians, which continued in the winter of 1218/19, was suddenly interrupted due to the attempt of the rebellion of the part of the Egypt. Emirov. It forced al-Kamil to escape in Ushumum Tannov. 5 Feb. 1219. The army of the Crusader was unhindered by the east. The coast of Nile and completely blocked Damietta. Under these conditions, Al-Camille tried to conclude an agreement with the Crusaders: in exchange for the withdrawal of the siege with Damietta, he was ready to give in Jerusalem and others. Owning of the Ayubid dynasty in Palestine (with the exception of transice), as well as to observe the world for 30 years.
John Briennia was inclined to accept the conditions of Al-Kamil, but the papal legate Pelagius insisted on the continuation of the siege. In May, the camp of the Crusader left the hertz. Leopold Austrian, which significantly weakened Christ. The army, especially since the Egyptians received reinforcements from Syria. Several attempts of the assault of Damiettes, undertaken in the summer, ended in failure. 29 Aug. 1219 Al-Kamil inflicted a serious defeat of the Crusaders, which allowed him to re-start negotiations about the world. He repeated the proposal to transfer to the Crusaders of all possessions captured by Aiubida in the Jerusalem kingdom, with the exception of Transiordania, as well as pay the restoration of the fortifications of Jerusalem, Belvoire fortresses (20 km south of the Galilean m.), Safed (now Safat, Israel) and Toron (now Tiblin, Lebanon) and return the crusaders a life-giving tree (honest cross), lost Christians in the battle of Hattin (1187). John Brienne again expressed the desire to accept the offer of Al-Kamil, but the papal legit and heads of spiritual and knight orders opposed the agreement. Apparently, Pelagiy sought to conquer the entire territory of Egypt ( Richard. 2002. P. 213-215).
In the fall of 1219, Catholic arrived in the camp camp. sv. Francis Assisian, directed to Egypt in order to turn the Sultan to Christianity. Francis Assisky tried to reconcile the opposing parties, but his mission was not successful. On the night of 5 Nov. 1219 The Crusaders undertook the final assault of Damiettes, during which the city was taken. John Briennia claimed the power over the Damietta as the regent of the Jerusalem kingdom, but the card. Pelagiy sought to maintain under the control of the community of the Crusader before the arrival of Friedrich II. The conflict with the papal legate forced John Baryna to return to the Jerusalem Kingdom in Nach. 1220, in the meantime, Al-Camille retreated to the south, after which the preparation for the defense of the Fortress of Mansur began.
In the spring of 1221, Christ. The army was replenished due to a large military contingent directed by Friedrich II under the command of Hertz. Ludwig Bavarian. Crusaders began to prepare for the siege of Mansura. On July 7, John Brianny returned to the army. On July 17, most of the Crusaders moved away from Damietta and on July 24, it was located on the land plot in front of the Mansur, washed from 3 sides by the Nil and his tributaries. The selected position could be extremely vulnerable in the event of a spill of the Nile. Despite the protests of John Bionnia, Legal Pelagius insisted on the continuation of the operation. In aw Thanks to the rise in the water level in Nile, the Egyptian fleet blocked the army of the Crusaders. 30 Aug. They were forced to conclude an agreement with Al-Kamil: Crusaders abandoned Damiettes in exchange for a guarantee of safe waste from mansura. Sultan also established a truce with the Crusader for a period of 8 years and agreed to give them a life-giving tree, which, however, was not transferred to Christians.
Despite the successful princip, the 5th crusade was completed by the defeat of the army of the Crusaders, which was largely due to their inconsistent actions and the unsuccessful command of the Papal Leah Card. Pelagia. An important factor was the reluctance of leaders of the Crusaders to enter into an agreement with the Egyptian Sultan. At the end of the hike, it became apparent that the future of the Jerusalem kingdom depends not only from military campaigns, but also from the success of diplomacy.
After the end of the 5th crusade of the Pope, Roman Horoni III re-demanded from imp. Friedrich II perform a crusader vow. In March 1223, between Honorime III, Friedrich II, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem Radulfom (1214-1225) and the regent of the Jerusalem kingdom of John Shakennie, an agreement was reached on the beginning of the crusader: the army of the Crusaders was to speak on June 24, 1225. Friedrich II was engaged with daughter John Brianny Jerusalem Cor. Isabella II. Nevertheless, for a number of reasons (complication of the political situation in Sicily, the conflict between England and France) the beginning of the expedition was again postponed. In July 1225 in San Jermanno (now Cassino) Imp. Friedrich II and Dad Horoni III entered into a new treaty, according to which the emperor under the fear of excommunication from the church pledged to make a campaign of 15 Aug. 1227 and pay 1 thousand knights participation in it. As a collateral of Friedrich II, Ioanna Bionnia, Patriarch Radulfu Jerusalem and Master of Teutonic Order Hermann Background, 100 thousand ounces of gold. 9 Nov. 1225, Friedrich II married Isabelle II and accepted the title of King Jerusalem, thereby confirming the intention to go on St. Earth.
Imp. Frederick II Staufen and Sultan Al-Camil near the walls of Jerusalem. Miniature from Chronicles Giovanni Villani. 40th. XIV. (Vat. Chigi. Lviii. 296 (Cat. XI 8). Fol. 42)Imp. Frederick II Staufen and Sultan Al-Camil near the walls of Jerusalem. Miniature from Chronicles Giovanni Villani. 40th. XIV. (Vat. Chigi. Lviii. 296 (Cat. XI 8). Fol. 42)
In aw 1227 Crusaders sailed from Brindisi to Palestine. 8 Saint. For the main part of the army, Friedrich II followed, which soon was forced to return to the southern disease. Italy. This gave the reason to the new Pope RomanGregory IX.
(1227-1241) to overcome it from the church and prohibit the emperor to participate in the campaign before removing the excision. The army arrived in Palestine in Oct. And began to build fortifications in Sidon, Caesarea and Jaffe, the Montor Fortress was also laid. Imp. Friedrich II was unsuccessful tried to achieve from Gregory IX removal of excommunication. Despite the ban of Pope, on June 28, 1228, Friedrich II sailed to the east. On July 21, he arrived in Cyprus, where he entered into a conflict with the Senor of Beirut and the regent of the Cyprus kingdom John (Jean) Ibelin for sovereign rights over the island (the dispute was resolved in favor of the emperor). 7 Saint. Friedrich II reached acres. Then the clergy of Lat. The Jerusalem Patriarchate and Master of the Spiritual and Knight orders received the message of the Pope of Roman, who demanded not to obey the orders of the emperor. As a result, masters of the Templars and Hospitallers, a new lat, were made against Friedrich II. Patriarch of Jerusalem Gerold Lausanne (1225-1239) and most of the barons of the Jerusalem kingdom. The side of the emperor accepted the German and Sicilian Crusaders, the Master of the Teutonic Order, as well as the Pisa and Genoese.
Even before arriving at East, Friedrich II agreed with Egypt. Sultan Al-Kamil about the return of Christians of all the territories of the Jerusalem kingdom, which were conquered by Salah-Ad-Din, in exchange for help Egypt in the war with Syria. The end of the Damascus Sultan al-Moazzama in November. 1227 strengthened Al-Kamil's position and allowed him to postpone the offensive in Syria, however, due to the increased threat from An-Nasira, the son of Al-Maazzam, Al-Kamil had to continue negotiations with Friedrich II. In Jan. 1229 was signed a contract for a period of 10 years. Under the control of Christians passed all Jerusalem, with the exception of the Temple Mountain, Bethlehem, Lidda (now Lod), Nazareth and Senoria Toron and Sidon. Friedrich II pledged to not have military support for the Anti-Choir Prince and Tripoli County, as well as spiritual and knight orders in St. Earth. The emperor promised to support Al-Kamil in the fight against all his opponents, including Christians.
The transition of Jerusalem under the control of Christians strengthened the authority of Friedrich II in Zap. Europe, however, hospitallers and the Templars reacted negatively to the agreement with Al-Kamil, since Christians had no right to restore the walls of Jerusalem. Lat. Patriarch, the residence of K-Pogo was in Akre, imposed an interdict on Jerusalem and under the fear of outerness banned Christians to accompany Friedrich II. Neverthewes on March 17, 1229, the emperor joined Jerusalem with the Teutonic Order Master. and Sicilian knights and some barons. The next day, Friedrich II laid the crown of the Jerusalem kingdom, but his further stay on St. Earth was difficult. The ownership of the emperor on O-ve Sicily was attacked by the papal army under the command of John Bionnia. On May 1, Friedrich II sailed from acres and reached Brindisi on June 10. The papal army was broken, and Gregory IX had to start negotiations with the emperor. 28 Aug. 1230 G. San Jermanno, a new agreement was signed: Pope shot with Friedrich II church excision (Chronica Regia Coloniens / Ed. G. Waitz. Hannover, 1880. P. 262. (MGH. Script. Rer. Germ; 18 )).
As a result of the 6th Crusade, Zap. For the first time in a long time, Christians received control over the main shrines of Jerusalem and a significant part of possessions, which were lost in 1187, but the safety of these territories remained at risk. The Jerusalem kingdom was significantly weakened by a long confrontation of local nobility with imp. Friedrich II.
A. V. Staretsky
In aw 1244, Jerusalem was taken by Khorezmians, which concluded an agreement with Egypt. Sultan As-Salih Ayuba (1240-1249). Oct 17. The troops of the Jerusalem kingdom were divided by the United Egyptian-Khorezmian army in the Battle of Forbia (La Forby, now der. Harbium near Gaza). Nevertheless, the chances of the successful outcome of the new expedition, the purpose of K-Roy was the liberation of St. Earth, were large enough. The ownership of Ayubid did not constitute the same period of the single state and were weakened by dynastic conflicts.
Sturm Damietta Cor. Louis IX holy. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France". 1332-1350. (Brit. Lib. Royal. 16 g Vi. Fol. 409V)Sturm Damietta Cor. Louis IX holy. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France". 1332-1350. (Brit. Lib. Royal. 16 g Vi. Fol. 409V)
Obvious became the need for a new crusade; He was organized by Franz. Cor.Louis IX Saint
(1226-1270). Pope RimskyInnokenti IV.
(1243-1254) while workingLyon I Cathedral
(1245) Bullah "Afflicti Corde" announced the beginning of the expedition. One of the sources of financing a new crusade should be a tax in the amount of 1/12 income clearing. The preaching of the campaign was charged with a card. Edu De Chateoror appointed by Papal Legatom. Much of Europe. The knighthood did not respond to the call of dad. Germany and Italy were involved in the conflict between Imp. Friedrich II and Innochentius IV (attempt by Louis IX to reconcile the emperor and Pope of Roman turned out to be unsuccessful), Hungary has not yet recovered from Mong. invasion of 1241 participation in the campaign of the English. Cor. Henry III (1216-1272) prevented an uprising in Gasconi (1252) against the governor of c. Simon de Montfor. Nevertheless, the brothers of the king Alfons, GR announced about the readiness to join the 7th crusade. Poitiers, Robert I, c. Artoi, and Karl Anzhuy (King of Sicily in 1266-1282), as well as c. William II Salisbury. At the head of the expedition, Franz got up. Cor. Louis IX. His wife is also attended by hike. Margarita Provenskaya and her sister Beatrice, Kraya, was married with c. Carl Anzhuy. Significant funds were allocated for the organization of the expedition (at least 950 thousand livres). The king convinced Franz. The clergy to sacrifice 1/10 income to the crusade, increased the size of the fines imposed by the court, confiscated the property of Franz. Jews and postponed the taxes of the city. In 1246, the king entered into an agreement on the supply of ships from Genoa and Marseille. Apparently, the total number of the crusader army was approx. 15 thousand people (Strayer J. R.
The Crusades of Louis IX // a History of the Crusades. 1969. Vol. 2. P. 493-494).
25 Aug. 1248 ships sailed from the port of Eg-Mort. The place of collecting troops was announced by Cyprus, where the crusaded army was during the winter. In May 1249, the fleet left the island and on 4 June reached the port of Damietta. Without having serious resistance from the Egyptians, the Crusaders captured the city. Louis IX considered Damietta as a support base for further military operations. He decided not to start a new offensive before connecting the main forces of the Crusaders with a large army under the command of Alfons, gr. Poitier Due to the spill Nile, the army of Louis IX was locked in the city for 5 months, which led to the fall of the moral spirit in the troops of the Crusaders. During the summer, the leaders of the hike discussed the issue of further actions. Part of the barons offered to capture Alexandria, since the Mediterranean was under the control of the Crusaders, which could reach the city faster than Egypt. army. However, it was decided to promote to Cairo through the Nile Delta; It began in November, after the arrival of the troops of Alfons, c. Poitier Louis IX handed over the management of the Dametta Wife (she was pregnant and soon gave birth to the son of Jean Tristan).
Султан ас-Салих Айюб разместил свои войска в крепости Мансура. В нояб. 1249 г. ас-Салих Айюб умер, но его смерть скрывали до прибытия из Ирака его сына Туран-шаха II. Егип. армию возглавили вдова султана Шаджар ад-Дурр и эмир Фахр ад-Дин. В дек. крестоносцы достигли участка берега, противоположного Мансуре. Переправа через Нил была организована лишь в февр. 1250 г., после того как местные жители сообщили крестоносцам о наличии брода. Первыми противоположного берега достигли отряды конницы во главе с Робертом I, гр. Артуа, и гр. Уильямом Солсбери, а также тамплиеры, к-рые проигнорировали приказ короля о соединении с основными силами и 8 февр. самостоятельно атаковали противника у Мансуры. Егип. армия, не ожидавшая наступления крестоносцев, понесла серьезные потери, эмир Фахр ад-Дин был убит. Тем не менее в скором времени егип. войскам удалось перегруппироваться и отрезать передовые отряды от основных сил крестоносцев. Брат Людовика IX, Роберт I, гр. Артуа, к-рому с отрядом удалось ворваться в Мансуру, погиб.
Основные силы крестоносцев во главе с франц. королем вскоре также пересекли Нил и нанесли поражение противнику (11 февр. 1250). Однако потеря авангарда значительно ослабила крестоносную армию. 28 февр. в город прибыл Туран-шах. Через неск. дней егип. армии удалось установить контроль над Нилом, в результате чего войска Людовика IX больше не могли получать провиант из Дамиетты. В марте стороны начали переговоры об обмене Дамиетты на Иерусалим, завершившиеся безрезультатно. 5 апр. егип. армия начала преследование крестоносцев, отступавших в сторону Дамиетты. 6 апр. в сражении при Фарискуре армия Людовика IX потерпела сокрушительное поражение. Король и большое число крестоносцев были взяты в плен. Когда об этом стало известно в Дамиетте, руководители генуэзских и пизанских флотилий собирались покинуть город, однако кор. Маргарита Прованская убедила их остаться. В кон. апр. 1250 г. было достигнуто соглашение с Туран-шахом II об освобождении короля и др. пленных в обмен на отказ от Дамиетты и выплату 800 тыс. безантов. Половину этой суммы Людовик IX должен был выплатить до того, как покинет Египет. Айюбиды обещали сохранить провиант и осадные орудия крестоносцев до их отбытия из города ( Strayer J. R. The Crusades of Louis IX // A History of the Crusades. 1969. Vol. 2. P. 503). 2 мая 1250 г. Туран-шах был убит в результате заговора, организованного группой мамлюкских эмиров во главе с буд. султаном Египта Бейбарсом I (1260-1277). На престол были возведены Шаджар ад-Дурр и женившийся на ней мамлюк Изз ад-Дин Айбек. Они подтвердили достигнутые ранее договоренности, и уже 6 мая Людовик IX был освобожден. Сразу после этого король отплыл в Акру, где ожидал возвращения из плена остатков армии. Ему удалось собрать часть выкупа и начать выплату обещанной суммы. Тем не менее мамлюки расторгли соглашение, убили мн. христиан, оставшихся в Дамиетте, и уничтожили провиант и военные машины, принадлежавшие крестоносцам. Король предпринял меры по обеспечению безопасности Иерусалимского королевства: в 1250-1253 гг. в Акре, Кесарии Палестинской (близ совр. Кесарии), Яффе (ныне Тель-Авив-Яфо) и Сидоне по его приказу возводились городские укрепления.
Убийство Туран-шаха положило начало противостоянию между мамлюками и сир. Айюбидами во главе с правителем Алеппо ан-Насиром (1236-1260), к-рый в июле 1250 г. захватил Дамаск. После того как войска Людовика IX заняли стратегически важную территорию между Каиром и Дамаском, враждующие стороны стали искать поддержку у франц. короля. Он счел более выгодными условия договора с мамлюками (заключен в 1252): король должен был поддержать вторжение егип. армии в Сирию в обмен на передачу Иерусалима, Вифлеема и большей части территорий на зап. берегу Иордана под власть крестоносцев; мамлюки также обязались освободить пленных крестоносцев после выплаты оставшейся части суммы, предусмотренной договором между Людовиком IX и Туран-шахом. Армия Людовика и егип. отряды должны были встретиться в мае между Яффой и Газой, к-рая вскоре была захвачена сир. армией. Франц. король в течение года был вынужден оставаться в Яффе. Отсутствие явного преимущества в борьбе между Египтом и Сирией вынудило Айюбидов и мамлюков заключить мирный договор, направленный против христиан (1 апр. 1253). Несмотря на то что Людовик IX потерял надежду на освобождение Иерусалима, принятые им меры по возведению укреплений на территории Иерусалимского королевства в целом оказались эффективными. В 1253 г. сир. армии не удалось захватить Яффу и Акру; Сидону, укрепления которого начали возводить незадолго до этого, был нанесен серьезный урон. В 1254 г. Людовик IX восстановил мир между Антиохийским княжеством и Киликийским королевством, содействовав браку кн. Боэмунда VI Антиохийского (1252-1268) и Сибиллы, дочери арм. кор. Хетума I (1226-1269). В том же году французский король заключил мирный договор с ан-Насиром сроком на 2 года, 6 месяцев и 40 дней. Людовик IX и Маргарита Прованская покинули Св. землю и отплыли во Францию (24 апр. 1254), где в 1252 г. умерла кор. Бланка Кастильская, мать короля, выполнявшая обязанности регентши.
Despite the fact that in the 7th crusade of the Cor. Louis IX failed to free Jerusalem, he significantly strengthened the Jerusalem kingdom, retained the world between Christ. Gos-your neighbor. East and achieved a peace treaty with Sir. Aiubida.
In the 60s. XIII century Egypt's military pressure has increased to the Jerusalem Kingdom and the Anti-Choir Principality. The troops of Sultan Beibars I managed to capture Caesaria and Arsuf (1265), safes (1266), Juffu and Antioch (1268). In 1266, Pope Clement IV (1265-1268) announced the need for a new campaign on St. Earth. Franz. Cor. Louis IX informed the dad about readiness to organize an expedition and in 1267 she brought the crusading vow along with its brothers Alfons, c. Poita, and the King of Sicily Karl Anzhuy and 3 sons: Dofi Philipp (Cor. Cor. Philipp III (1270-1285)), Jean Tristan, gr. Neva, and Pierre I, c. Alançon. The sermon of the 8th crusade in France was initially charged with a card. Simona de Briona (afterced. Pope Martin IV (1281-1285)). In 1267, the Welsh Prince was announced about the desire to join the expedition (Cor. Eduard I (1272-1307)). In 1268, Pope appointed a legacy responsible for the sermon, Card. Raul de Grospare. On March 15, 1270, Louis IX left Paris and arrived in the port of Eg-Mort in May. The sending of the army was postponed until July 2 due to the delay of ships in Marseille and Genoa. The first transit point of the Crusaders became the city of Cagliari on O-ves. Probably this decision Franz. The king took even before the start of the hike under the influence of Karl Anzhuy, whose relationship with the Emir of Tunisia Muhammad I al-Muntasir (1249-1277) was extremely tense. After the defeat of Manfred, Cor. Sicily (1258-1266), Son Imp. Friedrich II, in the battle of Benevento and the transition of the Sicilian kingdom to Carlo, Anzhuy Emir provided to the supporters of the dynasty of staucheunes asylum. At the same time, Tunisia was not the main goal for Louis IX, who wanted to send the firm blow to Egypt and initially expecting the appeal of Muhammad I in Christianity, nor for Charles Anjou, which sought to conquer the territories of the former. Latin Empire (see: Strayer J. R. The Crusades of Louis IX // a History of the Crusades. 1969. Vol. 2. P. 511-514).
Landing troops Cor. Louis IX Saint off the coast of Tunisia. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France." 1332-1350. (Brit. Lib. Royal. 16 g Vi. Fol. 440)Landing troops Cor. Louis IX Saint off the coast of Tunisia. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France." 1332-1350. (Brit. Lib. Royal. 16 g Vi. Fol. 440)
On July 18, 1270, the army under the command of Louis IX, practically no resistance, took the sector near Tunisia. On July 24, the Crusaders captured the fortress located on the site of ancient carfagen, and significantly strengthened their camp. The king decided not to start the storm of Tunisia before the arrival of Charles Anjou's detachment. At this time, the Crusaders suffered from diseases caused by heat, disadvantage of water and fresh food. 3 Aug. Jean Tristan died, and Aug 25. died Cor. Louis IX. On the same day, the detachment of Karl Anzhuy united with the main forces of the Crusaders. Since Philip III was unable to lead the expedition due to the disease, the actual commander became Carl Anjou, who decided to start negotiations with Emir. In accordance with the agreement signed 1 Nov., Muhammad I pledged to pay the Crusaders of 210 thousand ounces of gold. However, this amount, 1/3 of which was obtained by the king of Sicily, was not enough to compensate for the cost of organizing a crusade. In general, the terms of the contract turned out to be very profitable for Charles Anjou: Proponents of Staufenov were expelled from the possessions of Muhammad, Carl Anjou was returned to the right of free trade in Tunisia, while the fee introduced by Tunisian merchants for the right to trade in Sicily, increased twice. Christians living in Tunisia guaranteed the freedom of worship and sermons on the territory of churches.
10 Nov. 1270 In Tunisia, Prince Eduard arrived in Tunisia, which could no longer affect the agreement with Muhammad I. The next day the ships of the Crusader left Africa. Alfons, gr. Poitiers, suggested sending a crusaded army to Syria, however, after a storm, when at least 1 thousand people died. And they sunk 40 ships, this plan was rejected. Only a relatively few detachment of Prince Edward began to move from Sicily to the side of St. Earth and on May 9, 1271 landed at acres. After several Unsuccessful military operations King of Jerusalem and Cyprus Hugo III de Lusignan (1268-1284) signed a peace treaty with Sultan Beibars I (May 22, 1272). In St. Eduard sailed from Palestine.
The failure of the 8th crusade marked the last period of the existence of the Jerusalem kingdom, which ended with the fall of acres in 1291 in the 70s. XIII century Pope Gregory X, before his election, who was in Palestine and participated in the expeditions of Louis IX IX and Prince Eduard, took measures to organize a new campaign on St. Earth, which were not carried out due to the death of Pontifica (1276). Growing contradictions between Europe. We and a number of other factors led to the fact that the Epoch K. p. On St. Earth went into the past, and the political map of Vost. Mediterranean has changed significantly.
E. P. K.
This name is used to designate several. it. And Franz. Expeditions whose goal was the liberation of St. Earth from Muslims. Excerctory information about them can be learned from brief messages of local chronicles (at the same time many facts cannot be checked on the basis of other sources). Historical materials do not make it possible to accurately determine the presence of communication with the "official" crusading movement, but usually researchers are still inclined to talk about their community due to the presence of elements that, in their opinion, united it. And Franz. "Phases" of the campaign ( Raedts. 1977. P. 294; Dickson. 2008. P. 83-84). In Lit-Re, it is often indicated that in the strict sense of the word, these expeditions were not C. p., Since they were not initiated by the papacy and were not accompanied by the provision of indulgences ( Zacour N. P. The Children's Crusade // a History of the Crusades. 1969. Vol. 2. P. 330; GäBERER. 1978. S. 10). However, in some sources in relation to participants in the campaign, the term Crucesignati is used (see: Dickson. 2008. P. 92). For this reason, the goal of children is still accepted to attribute to K. p., Without assigning it, however, the ordinal number. The question of the age and social situation of the participants of the campaign remains open. It has long been noted that the sources mention as participants not only children ( MUNRO. 1914. P. 521), but the researchers believe that the term PUERI consumed in the sources could relate to persons under the age of 28 years or point to the social category of children deprived of his father's inheritance ( Miccoli. 1961. P. 430; Raedts. 1977. P. 296). On the eve of the hike, the propaganda campaign was not carried out, the purpose of which would be an expedition to St. Earth, since Pope Innokenty III was engaged in organizing campaigns against Albigians in France and against Muslims in Spain. However, it is quite possible that it was the preaching of these hikes that served to the expeditions 1212.
In the chronicle anonymous from Lana, it is reported that in June 1212. Shepherd Etienne from the der. Claus near Vandoma combined around themselves, arguing that Christ came to him in the image of a poor pilgrim, accepted bread from him and handed a person designed for the king of France (Chronicon Universale Anonymi Laudunensis / Ed. A. Cartelieri, W. Steceri. LPZ. , 1909. P. 70-71). In the other source contains information about processors that were organized by children who, asking God to return the "True Cross" (Auctarium Mortui Maris. 1213 // Chronica SIGEBERTI GEMBLACENSIS Cum ContinuationIBUS / ED. D. BETHMANN. Stuttg., 1844. P. 467. (MGH. SS; 6)), probably, keeping in mind the relic, K-paradium was lost during the battle of Khattin in 1187. According to the Jummy Annals, the children roamed on various settlements and claimed What is "looking for God" (Ex Annallibus Gemmeticensibus / ED. O. Holder-Egger // MGH. SS. T. 26. P. 510). Only in the continuation of the Cologne Royal Chronicles, it is reported that the ultimate goal of both French and it is. Movement was Jerusalem (Chronica Regia Coloniensis / ED. G. Waitz. Hannover, 1880. P. 190-191, 234. (MGH. Script. Rer. germ.; 18)). T about., About the release of St. Earth as a goal of Franz. Movements are reported in the chronicles drawn up after 1220, with it. Hike, K-Rym led the boy Nikolaus from Cologne, this goal is absorbed initially ( ALBERTI MILIOLI NOTARII REGINI Cronica Imperatorum / Ed. O. HOLDER-EGGER // MGH. SS. T. 31. P. 657; Reineri Annales // MGH. SS. T. 16. P. 665; Annales Scheftlarienses Maiores / Ed. PH. Jaffé // MGH. SS. T. 17. P. 338; Iohannis Codagnelli. Annales Placentini / Ed. O. HOLDER-EGGER. Hannover; LPZ., 1901. P. 42).
From Cologne detachment under the hands. Nikolaus moved down the Rhine, and then, moving through the Alps, reached Lombardy (however, some of the children turned back back in Mainz). Some participants of the campaign reached Treviso, while the majority began to move toward Piacenses, arriving in the city of 20 Aug. It is known that in 5 days they were in Genoa. There are extremely fragmentary information about their future fate. Detailed information about Fenty Franz. The hike is contained only in the chronicle of Alberica from the Abbey of True-Phonten († 1251/52), according to the swarm, the children reached Marseille, where some merchants offered to transport them across the sea. During the storm 2, the ship was sank, and on the remaining children were delivered to Africa and sold into solvents of Muslims. According to the chronicle, a few. The years of Pope Grigory IX ordered to build on O-ve San Pietro in the Mediterranean m., near the ships, ships, c. New innocent ( Albrici Monachi Triumfontium Chronicon / Ed. P. Scheffer-Boichorst // MGH. SS. T. 23. P. 893-894). However, information on the existence of this church is not confirmed by either reports of other written sources nor archaeological data ( GRASSO C. La Memoria Contesa Dei Novelli Innocenti // Un Maestro Insolito: Scritti Per F. Cardini. Firenze, 2010. P. 83-100).
The chronicles are not mentioned about the armed character of the campaign. This may explain the fact that during the campaign was not attacked by the Jews, which was a distinctive feature of other "folk" K. p. Contained in a number of late sources, as well as in some historical writings details regarding the number of participants in the campaign and Their origin, do not have grounds.
V. L. Tornnoe
The reason for the campaign was the appeal of the Hungarian Cor. Sigismund I Luxembourg (1387-1437; from 1433 Emperor) to Pope Bonifacea IX (1389-1404) and Dr. Western Europe. rulers asking for help in the fight against the tour. Threats. SERB defeat. The troops in the battle on the Kosovo field (1389) made southern. The boundaries of Hungary are open to raids. In 1390-1393 Vidin and Tarnovo were captured, for which Sigismund I was claimed. The situation was further complicated after Sultan Bayazid I (1389-1402) invaded the neighboring Valachia and expelled the local ruler, the Voivato Mirchi's old, erected to the throne of his goldenman (1394), And in 1395 attacked Hungary. Call Sigismund I met the greatest response to Franz. Lands: Franz offered assistance in the fight against the Turks. Cor. Karl Vi, Hertz. Louis Orleans and Philipper Brave, Hertz. Burgundy. In 1394, Bonifami IX published 2 Bully, in which he announced the beginning of the Holy War in Bosnia, Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia ( ATIYA. 1938. P. 435-436). In 1395. Cor. Sigismund I took a trip to the Valahius, restored Mirchaya old on the throne and went to the Danube, capturing the fortress M. Nikopol (now Tourna-Migurele, Romania). The victim of the Crusader's troops was announced in Buda. In 1396, the Franco-Burgundy Army headed by GR. Jean de Nevers, the detachment of Senorov Angherran de Kousi and Henri de Bara, as well as the advanced squad of Marshal Jean Le Mengra (on nicknamed Beadsiko) and Philip D'Artoi, c. D'E. 20 Apr. The main forces of the Crusaders came out of Dijon and in Ser. May reached the city of Regensburg, where the imperial army led to them was joined by Palatzg. Rhine Ruplecht II Vittelsbach. To con. July Allys of Sigismund I arrived in will and united with the Hungarian army. Little part of the troops (ch. Obr. Weng. Detachments) continued the offensive, started by Sigismund I in 1395. After going through the territory of the Valahia, where the detachment of Mircea old was joined, the crusaders came out to M. Nikopol and stopped in front of Nikopol, a large fortress, located On the opposite bank of the Danube. Nikopol had a key value for a military campaign, since he was a bridgehead to displacing Ottomans from the Balkan P-Ova and a breakthrough to the to-field. The main part of the army went to the fortress along the north. borders of the Sovche. Bulgaria, bypassing the mountains of Valachia. 10 second. Crusaders began the siege of Nikopol. The Allied Venetian and Genoese fleet entered the mouth of the Danube and blocked the fortress.
The number of crusaders varies from 16 thousand people. In Western European sources up to 130 thousand people. In Turkish. Historian A. S. Athya estimated the number of the crusaded army in 100 thousand people. ( ATIYA. 1934. P. 67). Apparently, the cumulative number of the Crusaders was still 15-20 thousand people. ( HóváRi J. A Nikápolyi CSATA: Fordulópont a Balkáni Oszmán Hódítások Történetében // Memoria Rerum Sigismundi Regis. Hadtörténelmi Közlemények. BDPST, 1998. T. 111. P. 29-34). There are also disputes on the number of Bayazid Army, but there is reason to believe that it slightly surpassed the troops of the Crusaders.
Bayazid I, understanding the consequences of the possible loss of Nikopol, retreated from the deposited to the field to Filippol (now Plovdiv, Bulgaria). After replenishing the army of Serb squads. kn. sv. Stephen Lazarevich (1380-1402; despot in 1402-1427), Sultan spoke to the aid of the garrison of the fortress. 24 Saint. Bayazid ordered to break the camp on an elevation located 5-6 km from the siege camp of the Crusaders. The arrival of the bayazid army forced them to remove the siege and under the cover of Valash and Weng. Returns rise from the valley on the plateau. At the military council, held on the night of 25 seconds., Cor. Sigismund I lost to Franz requirements. Knights who wanted to go first to battle. Before the battle tour. The infantry has created strengthening on the hill, for K-Ry there was a reserve from the horse guard. Before infantry, Bayazid posted the riders' detachments. Knights from Zhana de Nezer's troops, without putting a sigismund, entered into a fight with a tour. The army, but suffered large losses from the tour. Shelling and were defeated by the horse guard of Sultan. Mircea's old troops fled from the battlefield. Weng. The king was forced to give an order for a retreat, during the course the Crusaders were pushed back to the Danube of both the bayazid army and the tour. Garrison Nikopol. Sigismund escaped the flight: going out on the ship in the black m., He got to Dalmatia. Hike ended with a complete defeat of the Crusaders. Jean de Nevers and Jean Le Mengr were captured. Most of the troops were destroyed, although the loss of the tour. The armies were also great, and Bayazid I was forced to remove the siege from the to-field.
In the 20s XV century The Ottoman Empire, having recovered from defeat in the battle of Ankara (1402), inflicted by Tamerlan's troops, began to threaten Hungary and Byzantium. In 1421 a tour. The troops invaded Transylvania, and in May 1428 imp. Sigismund I Luxembourg was defeated by the Castle of Halamotz (now Golubats, Serbia). In the 30s. XV century The troops of Sultan Murad II (1421-1444, 1446-1451) several. Once invaded Serbia. In 1439, after a 3-month siege, they took the Serb. The capital of Smederevo, and in 1440 besieged Belgrade. At this time, dynastic conflicts aggravated in Hungary: after the death of Cor. Albrecht Habsburg (1439) began the struggle for the throne, in which the widow of the king Elizabeth Luxembourg, the daughter of Sigismund I, and the Polish Cor. Vladislav III (1434-1444), elected by representatives of the Weng. Cars. In 1440, he was crowned under the name Laslo (Ulaslo) I. in 1441-1442. Weng. The warlord Janos Hunyadi won in Serbia several. Victories that gave hope for the liberation of the Balkan. In addition, the visant. imp. John VIII Paleologist (1425-1448), who was in Italy after the conclusion of Florentine Union, led negotiations from Europe. Soviet people about the Union against the Turks. For active struggle with the Ottoman Empire, Venice was performed. Interest in Vost. Politician showed Philip III, good, Hertz. Burgundy (1419-1467), back in 1438, the contribution to the vow to go on a campaign against the Turks. Jan 1 1443 Pope Evgeny IV (1431-1447) published Bulla with a call to the campaign against the Turks.
Hungarian commander Janos Huyadi. Engraving. 1499Hungarian commander Janos Huyadi. Engraving. 1499
In the spring of 1443, against Murad II rebelled Ibrahim, the Balerby of the Emirate Caraman, an incited vistent. imp. John VIII Paleologist. July 9 Cor. Vladislav III, papal legat card. Juliano Cesarini and Serb. Despot Georgy (GYRG) Brankovich decided to start a military campaign. The success of the hike depended on the consistency of the actions of the troops of Vladislav III and Ibrahim and the Fleet of the Papal State and Venice, which was supposed to be prevented by the crossing of the tour. Forces from M. Asia to Europe. T.N. The long campaign began on July 23, when the army headed by Vladislav III and Janus Hunyadi spoke out of Buda. At the campaign participated ok. 35 thousand people In St. The army crossed through the Danube and combined with the detachments of Georgy Brankovich and the Lord of Valahii Vlad II of Dracula († 1447). Tour. Forces in Serbia and Bulgaria were few, because the main troops of Murad II were located in M. Asia and the Sea. 3 Nov. Niche has defeated the Army of Balerbhey Rumelia Casim Pasha. Turkish army Beginning movement to Sofia, using the tactics of the scorched land. Dec 24 The battle of Zlatitsa took place, during the fourth army, the Crusaders had to retreat. Nevertheless, after the defeat of Ottomans in the battle of Mountain Masiva Kunovitsa (now Suva-Planina), during which the son-in-law of Sultan Mahmoud Bay was taken prisoner, Murad II began negotiations with Cor. Vladislav. In May 1444, Mahmud Bay was released, and on June 12, a peace treaty was concluded, according to Ku Murad, Murad was obliged to return all possessions and release 2 of his sons to freedom. The Lord of Valahia was still obliged to pay tribute, but the presence at the court of Sultan became optional for him. After the conclusion of the contract. Vladislav III ordered to dissolve the army.
In June 1444, the Fleet of Crusaders sailed from Nice (4 Venetian Galeas and 6 Burgundy ships) under the hands. Jean de Vavrana. Detachment Joffroa de Tuaisi, who spent on a hike in May, without waiting for the arrival of the main forces near Corfu, began to rob trading ships off the coast of North. Africa. Dad Evgeny IV asked Jana de Vavrana to assist hospital stations that Egypt. Sultan precipitated on the O-ve Rhodes, but the Venetians who were the allies of Mamlukov, refused to do this. Jean de Vavrena sent the Burgundian part of the fleet to Joffwru de Tuazi, who took the course to Rhodes. The siege of the island of the Crusaders lasted to the Ser. Saint 1444 and ended with the defeat of Egypt. Fleet. The Rhodes campaign distracted the main forces of the crusader fleet from the main goal - the blockade of the straits.
Meanwhile, Sultan Murad II, ensuring the world for Zap. The boundaries of the Ottoman Empire, returned to M. Asia and severely suppressed the rebellion of Ibrahim Beilerbey. However, the card. J. Cesarini declared the world invalid and took off with Cor. Vladislav III oath, by which he crossed the contract with Murad II. 4 Aug. The Royal Council decided to resume the campaign. Papal State and Venice completed the preparation of the fleet. Going through the Danube 20 Sep., Cor. Vladislav III decided not to precipitate Nikopol. The army of the Crusaders began moving to the East, along the Danube; The armor (now Ruse, Bulgaria) turned the army towards Varna. However, on November 9. Murad II, landed in Gallipoli with a 40,000th army, oven crusaders. The total number of tour. The army was approx. 60 thousand people; The army, K-Roy, commanded Janos Hunyadi, was noticeably inferior to her (18-19 thousand people). Tour. Easy infantry (azaps) and lightweight cavalry (Aknji), who took the hill opposite the right flange of the Crusaders, began the offensive, however, despite their numerical superiority, the Aknzhi did not stand the attacks of the heavy cavoque. By order of Murad, Anatolian cavalry under the command of Karadi-run began an offensive to the center of the army of the Crusaders and forced to retreat the detachments that pursued broken Turks. The detachments of the right flank continued the persecution of Aknzhi, as a result of which the flank was lost cover. Janos Hunyadi organized a counterattack, K-paradium ended with a complete defeat of Anatolian cavalry. After the weng. The troops returned to the former defensive positions, the outcome of the battle was still unclear. Under the influence of Polish. Sweets, K-parada envied the success of Weng. Dummies Janos Hunyadi, Cor. Vladislav III, headed by 500 knights attacked Yanychar. In the battle, the king and most of his detachment died. Weng. The army was forced to retreat from the battlefield, Janos Hunyadi fled to Valachia. The battle at Varna was completed by the defeat of the crusaders, the losses of the rod were approx. 12 thousand people, loss tour. The armies were also great (20 thousand people).
The main reason for the failure of the anti-trap. The campaign was insufficient interaction as between individual parts of the army (Valahs and Polish-Heng. Tits, Weng. Mercenaries under the command of Huntiadi and Polish. The King's retinue) and between the main allies (Pope Evgeny IV, Cor. Vladislav III and Baylerbe Karaman) . Having learned about the defeat of the crusader, Jean de Wavrene organized an expedition to the Black Sea, since it was assumed that the Cor. Vladislav III remained alive. In the summer of 1445, by entering the mouth r. Danube, he united with the detachments of Vlad II Dracula and began to rob inventic settlements. 14 Saint. Jean de Vavrin, together with the troops, Janos Hunyadi entered into battle with the Turks from Nikopol, forcing them to retreat. Janos Hunyadi refused to pursue the tour. troops. Fearing that the Danube will soon be ice, Jean de Vavrena decided to complete the expedition, during the pro-swarm of the Crusaders did not manage to protect the Byzantium and Hungary from the Ottoman threat. Nevertheless, right up to gray. 60s. XV century hertz. Philip III Good did not leave the idea of a new campaign against the Turks.
N. N. Naumov
Military expeditions against participants of heretical and anti-chillery movements in Zap. Europe: a crusade against Albigians (1209-1229), 5 K.p. against the gusites in the 1st of the four hundred. XV century, as well as the campaign of 1468 against Czech. Cor. Jirja Podbrady (1458-1471), who belonged to immunity, moderate gusitis. To this type K. p. You can attribute the campaign of the Norgisk Ep. Heinrich Distremeser (1383). Although the hike pursued predominantly political goals and was associated with a century of war (1337-1453), formally His goal of Pope Urban VI (1378-1389) announced the struggle with schismatics, i.e., with supporters of the Antippa Clement VII (1378-1394). The actual objectives of the expedition were assistance to the rebel citizens of the Ghent and the seizure of Flanders County, associated with allied relations with France and representing an important export zone of wool. The campaign to collect funds for the crusade was accompanied by fraud and embezzlement, which caused criticism from the English. The theologian John Uiklif (between 1320 and 1330 - 1384). The military campaign was unsuccessful. After returning to England EP. Heinrich Despancer and some commanders appeared before the court for disrupting the terms of the expedition, neglect the help of members of the royal family and the surrender of the previously captured cities and fortresses to the French. K. p. Against heretics should also be attributed to the Aragon Crusade 1284-1285. against cor. Aragon Pedro III (1276-1285), which is energized from the Church of Pope Roman Martin IV.
Included several military campaigns in 1209-1229. With gray XII century Albigoines began to be called representatives of the South Francesuis Diostez of the Church of Qatar. The term "Albigoisa" is usually associated with Albi, one of the main centers of this movement. As it is believed, his representatives not only adhered to dualism, usual for Qatar, but also perceived the ideas of the Bogomilia. In the XII century Catholic came to fight heresy in Languedoc. Saints Bernard Clervosky and Dominic de Gusman. However, measures aimed against movement did not cause due validity, since heresy was supported by local senors, wealthy citizens and even individual bishops. For the first time about the beginning of the cross campaign against Albigoisians, the Laterian III Cathedral was announced (1179), however, during the expedition, several areas in the southern regions were only ruined. France. Dad Innocent III, also trying to weaken the position of Albigians, sent to Languedoc Legatom Cistercian Peter de Castelno. A number of bishops were devoid of departments, and Sienoras, supported by Qatars, are excommunicated from the church. In 1207, the gr. Raimund VI Toulouse, one of the largest senors of Languedoc. However, the sermons directed against the heresy still did not have much success, but Franz. Cor. Philip II Augustus did not interfere with the conflict with albigians. 15 Jan. 1208, after meeting with Raymund Toulouse, the papal legate Peter de Castelno was killed by one of the servants of the graph.
Pope Innocent III blesses a campaign against albigians. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France." 1332-1350. (Brit. Lib. Royal. 16 g Vi. Fol. 374)Pope Innocent III blesses a campaign against albigians. Miniature from "Big Chronicles of France." 1332-1350. (Brit. Lib. Royal. 16 g Vi. Fol. 374)
In response to this murder of Dad Innocent III, I published Bulla, in K-Roy promised to know the lands belonging to the heretics of Languedoc, all who will take part in the campaign. On the call responded ch. arr. Senoras from North. France regions, although the composition of the troops has repeatedly changed. So, after the 1st Expedition (1209), almost all participants in the campaign, with the exception of 30 knights, returned home. In the same year, the army gathered in Lyon. After the seizure of the city of Servyan, the Crusaders took the city of Bezier, the population of Kyous refused to surrender and was completely destroyed after the assault. In aw surrendered without the battle of Karkason. Then the troops of the Crusader took Albi, Castres, Fanjo, Lima, Lomber and Montreal. After a brief break, the fighting was resumed in the spring of 1210. Were taken by Brah and Term. After taking Minerva 140 Katarov, who refused to renounce the heresy, were burned on the fire. Then the conflict intervened. Aragon Pedro II (1196-1213), previously adhered to neutrality. In 1211, he accepted from one of the leaders of the campaign, gr. Simon de Montfor, a vassal oath for the Vicconason, and promised to marry his son Khaima on the daughter of the graph. However, in 1212, after a successful campaign against the Moors and the Battle of Las Navas de Toloze, Cor. Pedro II defended his shrin Ramunda Toulouse. After the king's attempt to defend the rights of Senorov Languedok at the Cathedral in Lover in 1213, he was not crowned with success, his troops, with the support of the detachments of Fua Counts and Toulouse, besieged the castle Mur. Cor. Pedro II died 12 seconds. 1213 in the battle near the Muren, the victory was won by Simon de Montor. The latter's possessions increased after capturing the Crusaders of Toulouse in 1215. In addition, by decision of the IV of the Lateran Cathedral of Raimund VII, the son of Ramunda VI was deprived of the rights to all lands: the ownership of the Count Toulouse was transferred to Simon de Montfor; For Raimund VII, only the right to inherit Marquisat Provence is preserved.
A year later, Raimund VII and his son, from 1213, located in England, returned to Languedoc and, oppressing the crusaders, took Baocker. Previously, Simona de Montfora was able to suppress the uprising in Toulouse, however in Saint. 1217, after Ramunda's troops VII Toulouse approached the city, his residents again raised the uprising. Simon de Monor was siege to Toulouse, but was killed on June 25, 1218. His son, Amori de Montor, had to be removed by the siege. In 1224, he gave way to Languedoc, which took him from his father, Franz. Cor. Louis VIII (1223-1226), which was headed by a new campaign in 1226. Most cities and castles surrendered Franz. The troops without resistance, and even the sudden death of the king did not affect the outcome of the military campaign.
Under the terms of the contract concluded on Apr 12 1229 in the city of MO, Ramunda VII recognized himself with a new Cor. Louis IX Saint, lost half of possessions and agreed to marry his only daughter Zhanna and brother King c. Alphonse de Poitiers. In the possessions of Ramunda VII, the Inquisition was introduced, the Count had to demolish the fortress walls in several. cities, pay large sums of the abbey of abbey and Toulouse un-Tu, to-ry actively fought with heresy. With the signing of a contract in the MO, a crusade against Albigians was formally ended, but the inquisition continued to act in Languedoc, which used the support of the Pope Gregory IX. At the Toulouse Cathedral of 1229, a decree was made, according to the roma, each bishop must pursue heresy in his dicese. Later, the court perpetrators moved to the Order of the Dominicans. The activities of the Inquisition tribunals created in 1233 became the cause of the uprising of Albigians in Narbonone (1234) and Avignon (1242); These speeches were suppressed. In March 1244, the fortress Montsegeur was captured. Keribyus Castle, the last stronghold of Albigians, fell in Aug. 1255
The results of the cross campaign against Albigians became significant losses of both warring parties, the strengthening of the Inquisition and the subordination of Languedok Franz. king.
In Bohemia (Czech Republic) in 1420-1434 / 37.- 5 expeditions against the followers of Yana Gus (approx. 1370-1415), convicted and executed at the Konstanzsky Cathedral. Crusaders repeatedly suffered defeat from well-organized and cohesive gusites, used firearms and Wantherburg combat carriages. In fact, military actions served as a unifying factor for gusits, forcing them for a while to forget about internal conflicts ( Lock. 2006. P. 202). At the same time, the gusites weakened as a confrontation between the paborite radicals and a temperate wing (cups, or immobilies that demanded for the oitraque specie) and the limited resources. The fighting has not brought significant results by any of the parties.
Battle of Crusaders with Gusites. Miniature from the Ian Code. List of the XV and XVI centuries. (Jenský Kodex / Jena Codex. Praha, Knihovna Národního Muzea. IV B 24. FOL. 56)Battle of Crusaders with Gusites. Miniature from the Ian Code. List of the XV and XVI centuries. (Jenský Kodex / Jena Codex. Praha, Knihovna Národního Muzea. IV B 24. FOL. 56)
The 1st crusade against the gusites was announced on March 1, 1420. Pope RomanMartin V.
(1417-1431). Imp. Sigismund I Luxembourg collected in Silesia army from him., Polish. and weng. Knights, militia of the Silesian cities and Ital. mercenaries. Simultaneously in the north-west of holy. The Roman Empire gathered troops from Brandenburg, Pfalts, Trira, Cologne and Mainz, in the south - from Austria and Bavaria. In Apr. 1420. Army imp. Sigismund I went to Kutna Mountain, where the camp was Camp. Supporters of the Habsburgs. The king demanded the inhabitants of Prague to remove the siege from the city citadel, which he kept the garrison faithful to him. However, the Taborites aromatic army approached the city (approx. 9 thousand people) led by Jan Zizhka. Relaxing the attack of the Crusaders, the gusites took the city. In the summer they broke the detachment of the Crusaders, the precipitated town of Tab. On July 14, a decisive battle took place on the Vitka Mount, in which the troops of the IMT. Sigismund I failed to succeed. Crusaders were forced to retreat and remove the siege from Prague. In nov They suffered defeat under Vysehigad.
By the beginning of the 2nd campaign, the army of the gusites turned out to be divided due to the conflict between tables and immortalities. In St. 1421 The Crusaders were besieged by the town of Zatets near the border with Saxony, however, the Army Yana Zhiži forced them to remove the siege and leave Bohemia. On Dec. imp. Sigismund I was able to capture Kutna Mount, but the 8 Jan. 1422 he was defeated by Gabri. During the harassment of retreating knights, Taborites captured by the traffic abandoned by them and took the city of German-Brod (now Gavlichkv-Brod). In 1423, Zhizi made a trip to Moravia and Hungary, where his army had to retreat at a meeting with a powerful Weng. army. Gusits suffered losses when a down to Bohemia.
The 3rd campaign began in 1425. The Gusitsky army was weakened by the armed confrontation of Taborites and Czeshnikov, as well as the plague epidemic. The campaign was preparing for you, the Polish Cor did not join it. Vladislav (Yagailo) (1386-1434) and led. kn. Lithua. Vitovt (1392-1430), which in 1422 assured Pope Roman, which can return heretics in Lono Catholic. Church peaceful way. Vitovt took the Chekhov under his patronage, and also sent a governor to the Bohemia cousin Sigismund Coributovich ( Turnbull. 2004. P. 12). Army led by Erzgez. Albecht Austrian, who played a leading role in the campaign, was defeated in Moravia and was forced to retreat to the territory of Austria. In 1426, the successor of the Zhigi Supreme Hetman Taborites Prokokii naked (Great) was asked by G. Usti-Nad-Labem. The combined army of Saxon, May Sysensky and Thuringan Principles tried to remove the siege, but was broken.
The 4th crusade against Gusites (1427) was led by the Kurfürst Brandenburg Friedrich. Gusitsky troops as a countermeasure invaded Austria and caused Tahova defeat of the Australian army. ERCHERSOG. In 1428-1430 Gusites have repeatedly invaded Saxony and Silesia, besieged Vienna.
The decision to organize the 5th hike was made in 1431 at the Imperial Sejm in Nuremberg. Army of Crusaders from Germ. The principalities under the command of Friedrich Brandenburg gathered at Czech. The borders and after the sudden attack of Gusites fled, leaving the enemy of travel and artillery. Later, the gusites defeated detachments from Saxony and Bavaria during Takhov. In 1433, they committed a successful raid in the possession of the Teutonic Order.
In 1433, the embassy led by the hetman Taborites proofed naked arrived at the Basel Cathedral; After some time, negotiations were transferred to Prague. In prisoners there are Prague compactists (November. 1433), the requirements of Gusites were partially satisfied: the communion of laity by bread and wine was allowed, the sermon could be conducted on the Czech. Language. However, the disagreements between the tabors who did not accept Prague compactists and the cups led to armed clashes. Having victory over the tabors in the battle of Lipans (May 30, 1434), moderate gusites concluded the world with imp. Sigismund I agreed to recognize his Czech. king. 15 Jan. 1437 The Basel Council ratified the compromise terms of the contract concluded in 1436 in Iglau (Jihlava) (Jelau compactists), according to which most of the gusites (moderate cups) returned to Lono Catholic. The church, receiving a number of concessions from Rome, first of all, the permission of the adoption of the communion under two species (Pope PIM II canceled compact in 1462).
The original outcome of the Gusitsky wars was the crusade of the Weng. Cor. Matthew Corvin (Matyash Hunyadi) in 1468 ( Turnbull. 2004. P. 15). Pope Paul II (1464-1471) on Dec. 1466 excused from the Church of Cesh. Cor. Jiří Podbrady and called for a campaign against him. Initially, the troops of the Gusites had a serious resistance to the Crusaders, but after interference in the conflict of Cor. Matthew Corvin Jirja Podbrad lost a significant part of Moravia. In 1469, Matvey Corvin proclaimed himself. King, but Jirji Podbrad, having enlisted with the support of Poland and having achieved reconciliation with Catholics of Moravia and Bohemia (Czech Republic), appointed his successor to the heir to Polish. The throne of Vladislav II Jagelon, which forced Corvin to retreat.
F. M. Panfilov
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S. V. Klenyuk, N. N. Naumov, F. M. Panfilov, I. N. Popov, V. L. Torchnoe, A. V. Streletsky
We conducted against the Poland-Baltic Slavs (from 1147), Zap. and east. Balts, threat-Finnish tribal unions (XIII century), as well as against individual volosts of the Galician-Volyn Rus, Novgorod, Pskov and Polotsky Principles, the Lithuanian Grand Principality. The organizers of military expeditions were the rulers of the state-in (ch. German) who were part of the Holy. Roman Empire. Officer The purpose of expeditions carried out on the blessing of the Roman dads was the Christianization of the peoples of Vost. Europe. Albert I, the 3rd Bishop of Livonia (1199-1229) and the 1st Bishop of Riga (from 1209), called the Crusaders to the Christianization of Prussia and the lands located to the northeast of it. In 1202, he founded the Livonian Order, who managed to conquer part of the territory of modern Latvia and Estonia. The Christianization of this region was held simultaneously with its conquest (for more details, see the articles of the Livonian Order, Teutonic Order).
The organizers of the cross campaign on the Earth Polandsky Slavs (1147) were Henrich Lion, Hertz. Saxony (1142-1180), and Albrecht Bear, Marcgr. Ballenchedt (1123-1170). On March 19, 1147, Bernard Clervosky spoke with a preaching of a campaign against Slavic-pagans at the Frankfurt Reichstag. 11 Apr. Dad Evgeny III published Bulla "Divini Dispensation", in which equated participation in the expedition to the campaign on St. Earth. For the expedition on the lands of Slavs joined dates. Cor. Sven III and its co-guards of Knud V, Hertz. Konrad Burgundy, Pafalzgr. Friedrich Saxon, Pafalzg. Herman Ransky, MarcGG. Konrad Mayysensky, Adalbert II, Archpiece. Bremen, Friedrich, Archipe. Magdeburg, Vibald, Abbot Mont-Kaja Cruway, and others. It., Cesh. and Polish. rulers.
The desire of the Crusaders to pay the Poland-Baltic Slavs (primarily Bodrich and Luthich) to Christianity and establish Catholic on their lands. Ep-property combined with the intention to expand at the expense of glory. Land in Pomorie possession of it. and Polish. Princes. Celebration Christianization. Slavs began in the XI century. Its slow pace is explained by the weak involvement in this process of Slav. Nature, Kraya adhered to paganism. In addition, the secular señoras, which spread the influence on Polands and Pomeranian Slavs through a system of dynastic marriages, sought to finally subjugate these territories. MarcGR. Albrecht Bear suggested expanding his possessions at the expense of Slav. Lands behind foam rivers, Odra (Oder) and Laba (Elba), as well as increase the volume of trade in the south. The coast of the Baltic m., That was impossible without eradicating the marine piracy. Polish. The princes participating in the expedition claimed the vehicle. Pomorie.
The campaign was described in detail in the Slavor Chronicle (Chronicon Slavorum) Helmold from Nassau and in Acts Danorum Saxon Grammar. In the summer of 1147, the ruler of Bodrich, Khizhen and CNN. Niklot organized a marine campaign on the crusaders under Lyubek and Wagria, during the course of the Fleet was destroyed. Participants in the crusade were able to postpone the fighting on Poland-Balt land. Slavs. The army of the Crusaders began to storm the glory. City-fortresses are killing that, however, did not lead to the take of the city. Defense KNOP was headed by KN. Niklot. At sea, he was actively supported by the Tribal Union of Ruined (Wounds), who lived on the O-vegan. Here it was located the major pagan sanctuary of God of Saint. Ruyang managed to ruin the coast of Denmark and split the dates in battle. Fleet, who was commanded by Asker, EP. Roskill. Kn. Niclota had to break the military-political union with Galsteinsky c. Adolf II Shaunburg. Although he did not support the crusade, nevertheless refused to openly oppose Hertz. Heinrich Lion. During the combat operations of the CN. Niklot took several. Successful shafts from the fortress drove and inflicted damage dates. Army. Thanks to the successful actions of the fleet of Ruyan Cor troops. Sven II, who suffered among the crusaders the greatest losses, removed the siege to be killed and left the Earth of Bodrich.
In aw 1147. The army under the command of Albrecht Bed began to move from Magdeburg on the river. Laba in the direction of the land of Bizhen and reached Havelberg. Righting the land of Gavwan and Morochan, capturing a small glory. G. Malchon and the pagan sanctuary that was in it, the Crusaders approached the G. Dien (Demmin) - the political center of the leutoff on the river. Foam. Part of the troops went to the conquest of Shattin (Shecin), where Polish joined it. troops; Another beginning is a siege of smoke, however, defeated.
Kn. Niclota managed to oust the crusaders from their possessions only after the hertz oath. Henry Lero is that Bodrichi will take Catholic. Faith and liberate prisoners. The readiness of the leaders of the crusade to go for concessions to the Slavs was caused by the fact that the Crusaders had to remove the siege from Shttitin, since most of his garrison was Christians. At the negotiations with the Crusaders, the embassy from the besieged headed the local bishop, which was delivered to the preaching about the need to treat the pagans to Christianity with the help of the Word of God, and not by the power of weapons. In 1148 in Havelberg Pomeranian KN. Ratibor concluded with representatives of Saxon. Know the honorary world, but it did not strengthen the power of the KN. Niclot. Despite the oath given Hertz. Henry Leru, he restored the Union with Golsteinsky c. Adolf II. However, after the death of the ruler Gavwan KN. Profrieslava (1150) MARKG Troops. Albrecht Polard managed to seize power in the branch of the Braniba principality owned. In 1151, the Hizhen's uprising began and seened, refused to pay tribute to the CN. Niclot. The prince appealed to the succons and with their help suppressed the rebellion. In 1156, without frightened the captivity and the threat of a new crusade, KN. Nikalg again refused to go to Catholicism and baptize their people. Forced to steal between political groups in the Saxon Hertz, Prince recognized his dependence on the power of the hertz. Henry Lion, on behalf of the F-made an attack on the shores of Denmark. However, in 1157, after the defeat of the KN. Yachko, who killed in 1155 Saxons from the Branibor Principality, the position of the KN. Niclot has worsened again. On the lands of Poland-Balt. The Slavs were established by 3 diostez, who submitted to Gatvig, Archipes. Hamburg and Bremen (1148-1168).
In 1160 Herz. Henry Lion and dates. Cor. Waldemar I Great (1157-1182) organized a new crusade against Bodrich. During the campaign. Niklot was killed. Taking advantage of contradictions between sons and grandchildren of the deceased ruler, Saxon. To know strengthened its political influence on the lands of Bodrich. After internecial war, the heirs of the KN. Niclot accepted Catholicism and received the Mecklenburg Hertz-Bodrich lands based on the lands.
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A. V. Kuzmin
Crusades - a number of religious military expeditions, which continued from 1096 to 1272.
Crusades - a number of religious military expeditions, which continued from 1096 to 1272. They passed under the slogan struggle for the liberation of the Holy Land from Muslims.
In 677, Jerusalem was under the rule of Arabs. The city was a sacred place not only for Christians, but also for Jews and Muslims. And, if at first, the Arabs did not prevent Christian pilgrims to attend the Holy City, then with the arrival of Turks-Seljuk Turkov, the situation has changed radically. In 1071, they closed access to Ihersuali "incorrect", that is, Christians.
At that time, Europe experienced a deep crisis. For several years, drought and crumbled during several years have led meodals that the feudalles could not pay knights for their service. In addition, at the end of the XI century, the problem of overpopulation was acute in Europe. It is not surprising that there was a huge number of knights, united in real gangs. These gangs were engaged in robbery, laid the seasons. There is a need to direct their warlike energy in the right direction. Moreover, the Roman Catholic Church sought to spread its influence on the eastern Mediterranean.
In 1095, the Byzantine Emperor Alexey I Komnet turned to Western European countries with a request for help. He feared that Selzhuki Turks could capture Constantinople. In November 1095, at the Clermont Cathedral of Pope Urban II uttered his famous speech, calling all the kings, senors, knights and ordinary people to go to the Holy Earth, freeing it from the "hated bosurman" and to win the Merran. Pope Urban II speech caused a large inspiration. Moreover, the pilgrims who returned from Jerusalem told about the fabulously rich east.
People who wished to go hiking treated their clothes crosses. They began to be called "Crusaders", and hiking, in which they were sent - "crusades".
Crusades were called:
- The desire to free the holy land;
- The desire to extend the influence of the Catholic Church to the East.
- The plight of the situation in Europe as a result of the economic crisis and the demographic situation.
The first Cross campaign was preceded by the so-called "Crusade of the Poor", since it was mostly the poor peasants and knights set off. Pope promised to the participants of the campaign of all past and future sins, probably, therefore, the Crusadors were engaged in robbery in the holy land. Moreover, it was not possible to provide food and everything necessary 80-thousand army.
Constantinople came only about 40 thousand people. Byzantine Emperor Alexei I Comnne was not delighted with an unorganized crowd, realizing that she would not be able to confront the Seljuk Turks. Seeing the Crusaders are engaged in robbery in the city, he crossed them through the Bosphorus. Soon, the Crusaders were defeated by attacks on them by the Selzhuki Turks. According to some reports, only about a thousand people were saved, including the French priest Peter Dressman, whose sermons in front of the crusade were inspired by many people.
First crusade (1096-1099)
If the first crusaders were a spontaneous crowd, the next goal, which began in 1096, was much better prepared.
- From Northern France, an army was opposed to the leadership of the Gugo Great (Gugo Vermandua).
- From Central France, the army was put forward, which was led by Gotfrid Boulevard.
- Bohamund Tartant commanded by ITALY. Crusaders of Southern France led Raimund IV.
- Robert Normansky was the leader of troops from North-West France.
Before Constantinople, the forces of these army united. Crusaders of the first crusade were well armed and organized. This time, skillful warriors were able to beat off most of the Pastestic. In 1099, the Crusaders captured Jerusalem.
During the first crusade, it was possible to achieve the main goal - to win the holy land and release the coffin of the Lord. Crusaders created the Jerusalem kingdom. In addition to this kingdom, there were other states in which the warriors put on the same orders as in the European Medieval Society. This was subject to:
- Tripoli county;
- Principality of Antioch;
- County Edessian.
Seljuky Turks hatched the return plans of the lost territories. In 1144, they wanted the County Edesso. In this regard, the second crusade began to prepare in Europe.
The second crusade (1147-1149)
The second crusade headed:
- French king Louis VII;
- German Emperor Conrad III Gogenstaofen.
Even on the way to the Iersualum kingdom, the host has grown very much. This was facilitated by:
- Poor-quality food;
The campaign was extremely unsuccessful. Crusaders suffered a number of defeats from Arabs and were forced to return home.
In 1173, a new state appeared on the territory of Egypt, whose ruler was a talented commander and diplomat Sultan Salah Ad-Dean (Saladine). He began the war against the Hiersual Kingdom and in the battle of Khattin broke the army of the Crusaders. After that, the army of Saladin took in the siege to Jerusalem, who soon capitulated. The Hiersual Kingdom ceased to exist.
Third Crusade (1189-1192)
In 1189, the third crusade began. His main goal was re-retavating the Holy Land.
- The British spoke under the leadership of the fearless warrior - the King of England Richard "Lion Heart".
- France's king Filipp II Augustus led French crusaders.
- German Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa led the campaign of German knights.
The third crusade also turned out to be unsuccessful. German knights on the way lost their leader. During the crossing through the River Selif in Malaya Asia, Friedrich Barbarossa, closed in heavy armor, fell from the horse and drowned. After that, most of the German crusaders turned home.
The English and French knights got to the territory where the Jerusalem kingdom was still recently, but they did not immediately release Jerusalem immediately, but decided to settle the strength of the acre. Siege lasted two years. The French king did not wait for the end of the siege and left home with his knights. Richard "Lion's Heart" remained under the acre surrounded by Saladin's troops.
Despite the fact that the English king still took acre and even won the Saladin's troops in the battle during the Arsuf, the case ended with peace negotiations. Richard had to urgently return home, as the French king of Philip took advantage of the lack of the English king and captured almost all the possessions of England on the mainland.
The results of the third crusade were very modest. Christian pilgrims were allowed to visit Jerusalem freely, but he still belonged to Muslims. Acre and part of the coastal strip from Tira to Jaffa remained in the hands of the Crusaders.
Fourth crusade (1202-1204)
In 1202, the fourth crusade began. He was very different from the previous ones. This time the Crusaders decided to take the sea campaign. However, they could not pay off with Venetian traders for ships. The merchants persuaded the knights instead of the Holy Land to go to the capital of Byzantium.
The crusaders were besieged by Constantinople and put forward the demand to pay money for "protection against incorrect." After receiving the refusal, the knights captured the city and cruelly plundered it.
The fourth crusade showed that the main goal of the Crusaders was not the liberation of Jerusalem, but enrichment. At the captured territory created the Latin Empire. Its residents had to pay unbearable taxes.
In 1212, the so-called "Children's Cross Hike was held. Since people explained unsuccessful attempts to release Jerusalem with numerous sins of the Crusaders, it was decided to send children from France and German to the Holy Land. The children were armed with one prayer alone. The fate of juvenile crusaders turned out to be sad. Instead of delivering them to Palestine, merchants sold children to Egyptian slavery.
The remaining four crusons went unsuccessful. Only during the sixth campaign (1228-1229) as a result of peace negotiations managed to return to Christians Jerusalem and part of the lands captured by Saladin.
However, in 1244, Jerusalem again occupied Turks.
The seventh crusade (1248-1254) and the eighth crusade (1270), under the leadership of the French king, Louis IX, the saint ended unsuccessfully, and for the king himself tragic - he died.
Consequences of crusades
Europeans never walked the holy land. Despite the fact that the kert hikes brought a lot of disasters, they allowed Europe to familiarize themselves with the achievements of the East in many areas:
- Crusaders brought with them the secret of making paper;
- Europeans learned about chess;
- Learned how to grow rice, watermelons, lemons and other cultures;
- In Europe, the baths and windmills began to build.
In the Mediterranean Sea, in the results of the crusades, the dominant position was taken by Italian merchants. This led to an increase in European trade. In general, it can be said that the introduction of the achievements of the East in the field of medicine, mathematics, geography prepared fertile soil for the beginning of the European Renaissance.